Homogeneity of Streptococcus dysgalactiae from farmed amberjack Seriola dumerili in Japan
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Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains have been isolated from cultured amberjack Seriola dumerili and yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. To characterize the fish isolates, we performed genetic analysis and compared the biochemical properties of these isolates with those of the S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains isolated from mammals. The genetic analysis revealed that the fish isolates were genetically very similar to each other with high DNA–DNA relatedness (>95.4%) and sequence homology. Meanwhile, the DNA relatedness between mammalian isolates and the fish isolates was 73.4–82.6%. In biased sinusoidal gel electrophoresis (BSFGE) analysis, the restriction patterns of mammalian isolates were different from those of fish isolates. The fish isolates did not show streptokinase activity in plasminogen obtained from mammals. These characteristics enabled us to distinguish between the fish isolates and the Sdd and Sde strains isolated from mammals. In order to obtain epidemiological information on the fish isolates, BSFGE patterns from 284 S. dysgalactiae strains from fish in Japan were examined. Based on the results of BSFGE analysis, the fish isolates were classified into 16 groups (AP1–AP16) with restriction enzyme ApaI. The dendrogram based on BSFGE analysis indicated that all fish isolates using in this study were closely related.