Advertisement

Fisheries Science

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 601–610 | Cite as

Spatial variation of quantitative color traits in green and black types of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Stichopodidae) using image processing

  • Katsumasa Yamada
  • Masakazu HoriEmail author
  • Susumu Matsuno
  • Tatsuo Hamano
  • Masami Hamaguchi
Original Article Biology

Abstract

It has been suggested that the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, has three color types (red, green, and black), although the qualitative difference between the color types, particularly between the green and black types, is unclear because of continuous color variation among color types. This study elucidated the color variation between green and black types using image processing (RGB, red–green–blue system) and multivariate analysis to demonstrate whether or not the black and green types can be quantitatively classified. Moreover, spatial variation of the RGB value among various local sites was clarified to estimate potential environmental factors that may affect the color variation. The series of analyses revealed that a quantitative boundary between green and black types could be provisionally established, and also that spatial variability in the intermediate (continuous) color trait between green and black types was significant. Potential environmental factors (depth and industrial activity index) were correlated with the color traits in both color types. These results suggest that the green and black types cannot be regarded as independent color traits and that the color variation between green and black types may be influenced by local environmental factors.

Keywords

Apostichopus japonicus Color variation Discriminant analysis RGB Sea cucumber 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank G. Yoshida, M. Sasaki, and S. Kamimura for help with the analysis and discussion. This study was supported by research project funds from Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council (Strategic promotion of research in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries no.1915).

References

  1. 1.
    Choe S, Oshima Y (1961) On the morphological and ecological differences between two commercial forms, “Green” and “Red”, of the Japanese common sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus SELENKA. Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi 27:97–105 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Statistics Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2008) Heisei 18 nenn, Gyogyou, yousyokugyou seisann toukei nennpou (Annual statistics of fishery and fish culture, 2006). Statistics Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jenkins M, Mulliken T (1999) Evaluation of exploitation in the Galapagos Islands Ecuador’s sea cucumber trade. Traffic Bull 17:107–117Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bruckner AW, Johnson KA, Field JD (2003) Conservation strategies for sea cucumbers: can a CITES Appendix II listing promote international trade? SPC Beche-de-mer Inf Bull 18:24–33Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ito S (1995) Studies on the technological development of the mass production for sea cucumber juvenile, Stichopus japonicus. Bull Saga Prefect Genkai Fish Res Dev Center 4:1–87 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Begon M, Harper JL, Townsend CR (1996) Ecology: individuals, populations and communities, 3rd edn. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tanaka M (2000) Diminution of sea cucumber Stichopus japonics juveniles released on artificial reefs. Bull Ishikawa Prefect Fish Res Center 2:19–29 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mitsunaga N, Matsumura S (2004) Growth and survival of hatchery-produced juveniles of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in different size. Bull Nagasaki Prefect Inst Fish 30:7–13 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kanno M, Kijima A (2002) Quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the color variation of the Japanese sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. Suisanzoshoku 50:63–69 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kanno M, Kijima A (2006) Genetics and breeding study on color variations of Japanese sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichopus) japonicus. Fish Genet Breed Sci 36:15–23 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huberty CJ (1994) Applied discriminant analysis. Wiley–Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hashim H, Rahman RA, Jarmin R, Taib MN (2006) A study on RGB color extraction of psoriasis lesion using principle component analysis (PCA). 4th student conference on research and development, vol 27. pp 85–90Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fisheries Agency (1999) Gyoba kankyou hyouka messyuzu—Setonaikai—(Evaluation of environments at fishing grounds using mesh chart—Seto Inland Sea). Fisheries Agency, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kanno M, Kijima A (2003) Genetic differentiation among three color variants of Japanese sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. Fish Sci 69:806–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kanno M, Suyama Y, Li Q, Kijima A (2006) Microsatellite analysis of Japanese sea cucumber, Stichopus (Apostichopus) japonicus, supports reproductive isolation in color variants. Mar Biotechnol 8:672–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gray AM, McKinnon JS (2006) Linking color polymorphism maintenance and speciation. Trends Ecol Evol 22:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsumasa Yamada
    • 1
  • Masakazu Hori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Susumu Matsuno
    • 2
  • Tatsuo Hamano
    • 3
  • Masami Hamaguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland SeaFisheries Research AgencyHatsukaichiJapan
  2. 2.Inland Sea Research DivisionYamaguchi Prefectural Fisheries Research CenterYamaguchiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Applied AquabiologyNational Fisheries UniversityYamaguchiJapan

Personalised recommendations