Functional Data Analyses of Gait Data Measured Using In-Shoe Sensors
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In studies of gait, continuous measurement of force exerted by the ground on a body, or ground reaction force (GRF), provides valuable insights into biomechanics, locomotion, and the possible presence of pathology. However, gold-standard measurement of GRF requires a costly in-lab observation obtained with sophisticated equipment and computer systems. Recently, in-shoe sensors have been pursued as a relatively inexpensive alternative to in-lab measurement. In this study, we explore the properties of continuous in-shoe sensor recordings using a functional data analysis approach. Our case study is based on measurements of three healthy subjects, with more than 300 stances (defined as the period between the foot striking and lifting from the ground) per subject. The sensor data show both phase and amplitude variabilities; we separate these sources via curve registration. We examine the correlation of phase shifts across sensors within a stance to evaluate the pattern of phase variability shared across sensors. Using the registered curves, we explore possible associations between in-shoe sensor recordings and GRF measurements to evaluate the in-shoe sensor recordings as a possible surrogate for in-lab GRF measurements.
KeywordsGait analysis Ground reaction force Functional data Curve registration
This work was supported in part by NSF CMMI Award #1538447. The last author’s research was supported by the Award #R01HL123407 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and by the Award #R01NS097423-01 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
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