Inactivation of Adenovirus in Water by Natural and Synthetic Compounds
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Millions of people use contaminated water sources for direct consumption. Chlorine is the most widely disinfection product but can produce toxic by-products. In this context, natural and synthetic compounds can be an alternative to water disinfection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the inactivation of human adenovirus by N-chlorotaurine (NCT), bromamine-T (BAT) and Grape seed extract (GSE) in water. Distilled water artificially contaminated with recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdV-GFP) was treated with different concentrations of each compound for up to 120 min, and viral infectivity was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The decrease in activity of the compounds in the presence of organic matter was evaluated in water supplemented with peptone. As results, NCT and GSE inactivated approximately 2.5 log10 of adenovirus after 120 min. With BAT, more than 4.0 log10 decrease was observed within 10 min. The oxidative activity of 1% BAT decreased by 50% in 0.5% peptone within a few minutes, while the reduction was only 30% for 1% NCT in 5% peptone after 60 min. Organic matter had no effect on the activity of GSE. Moreover, the minimal concentration of BAT and GSE to kill viruses was lower than that known to kill human cells. It was concluded that the three compounds have potential to be used for water disinfection for drinking or reuse purposes.
KeywordsN-chlorotaurine Bromamine-T Grape seed extract Water disinfection Adenovirus
This work was supported by The Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) [Grant Numbers 420398/2016-3], the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), grant no. KLI459-B30, and the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES). We would like to thank Dr. Martin Hermann (Medical University of Innsbruck) for assistance with fluorescence microscopy, Dr. Flávio Reginatto and Dra. Caroline Ortmann (Federal University of Santa Catarina) for their support on the GSE activity assays and Dr. Leandro Garcia (Cambridge University) for statistical assistance. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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