Quantification and Genotyping of Aichi Virus 1 in Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
- 325 Downloads
Aichi virus 1 genomes were detected by quantitative PCR in groundwater from shallow dug (10/22) and tube wells (1/15), river water (14/14), and sewage (1/1), with the maximum concentration of 4.0 × 109 copies/l. Nucleotide sequencing analysis demonstrated the prevalence of genotype B in the virus positive samples.
KeywordsAichi virus 1 Groundwater Kathmandu Valley Picornaviridae
This study was partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program “Evolution of Research and Education on Integrated River Basin Management in Asian Region” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.
- Kitajima, M., Hata, A., Yamashita, T., Haramoto, E., Minagawa, H., & Katayama, H. (2013). Development of a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR system for detection and genotyping of Aichi viruses in clinical and environmental samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 3952–3958.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ono, K., Rai, S. K., Chikahira, M., Fujimoto, T., Shibata, H., Wada, Y., et al. (2001). Seasonal distribution of enteropathogens detected from diarrheal stool and water samples collected in Kathmandu, Nepal. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 32, 520–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shrestha, S., Haramoto, E., Sherchand, J. B., Hada, S., Rajbhandari, S., & Shindo, J. (2016). Prevalence of protozoa and indicator bacteria in wastewater irrigation sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Cases from Kirtipur, Bhaktapur and Madhyapur Thimi municipalities. Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 14, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shrestha, S., Nakamura, T., Malla, R., & Nishida, K. (2014). Seasonal variation in the microbial quality of shallow groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, 14, 390–397.Google Scholar
- Yamashita, T., Sugiyama, M., Tsuzuki, H., Sakae, K., Suzuki, Y., & Miyazaki, Y. (2000). Application of a reverse transcription-PCR for identification and differentiation of Aichi virus, a new member of the Picornavirus family associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 2955–2961.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar