Advertisement

Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 350–353 | Cite as

Quantification and Genotyping of Aichi Virus 1 in Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

  • Eiji HaramotoEmail author
  • Masaaki Kitajima
Brief Communication

Abstract

Aichi virus 1 genomes were detected by quantitative PCR in groundwater from shallow dug (10/22) and tube wells (1/15), river water (14/14), and sewage (1/1), with the maximum concentration of 4.0 × 109 copies/l. Nucleotide sequencing analysis demonstrated the prevalence of genotype B in the virus positive samples.

Keywords

Aichi virus 1 Groundwater Kathmandu Valley Picornaviridae 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program “Evolution of Research and Education on Integrated River Basin Management in Asian Region” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

References

  1. Haramoto, E., Katayama, H., Asami, M., & Akiba, M. (2012). Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Journal of Virological Methods, 182, 62–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Haramoto, E., Yamada, K., & Nishida, K. (2011). Prevalence of protozoa, viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria in groundwater and river water in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 105, 711–716.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Inoue, D., Hinoura, T., Suzuki, N., Pang, J., Malla, R., Shrestha, S., et al. (2014). High throughput DNA microarray detection of pathogenic bacteria in shallow well groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Current Microbiology, 70, 43–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Kitajima, M., & Gerba, C. P. (2015). Aichi virus 1: Environmental occurrence and behavior. Pathogens, 4, 256–268.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Kitajima, M., Hata, A., Yamashita, T., Haramoto, E., Minagawa, H., & Katayama, H. (2013). Development of a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR system for detection and genotyping of Aichi viruses in clinical and environmental samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 3952–3958.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Kitajima, M., Iker, B. C., Pepper, I. L., & Gerba, C. P. (2014). Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes—identification of potential viral indicators. Science of the Total Environment, 488–489, 290–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ng, T. F. F., Marine, R., Wang, C., Simmonds, P., Kapusinszky, B., Bodhidatta, L., et al. (2012). High variety of known and new RNA and DNA viruses of diverse origins in untreated sewage. Journal of Virology, 86, 12161–12175.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ono, K., Rai, S. K., Chikahira, M., Fujimoto, T., Shibata, H., Wada, Y., et al. (2001). Seasonal distribution of enteropathogens detected from diarrheal stool and water samples collected in Kathmandu, Nepal. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 32, 520–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Reuter, G., Boros, A., & Pankovics, P. (2011). Kobuviruses – a comprehensive review. Reviews in Medical Virology, 21, 32–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Shrestha, S., Haramoto, E., Malla, R., & Nishida, K. (2015). Risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater contaminated with enteropathogens in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Journal of Water and Health, 13, 259–269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Shrestha, S., Haramoto, E., Sherchand, J. B., Hada, S., Rajbhandari, S., & Shindo, J. (2016). Prevalence of protozoa and indicator bacteria in wastewater irrigation sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Cases from Kirtipur, Bhaktapur and Madhyapur Thimi municipalities. Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 14, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shrestha, S., Nakamura, T., Malla, R., & Nishida, K. (2014). Seasonal variation in the microbial quality of shallow groundwater in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, 14, 390–397.Google Scholar
  13. Tanaka, Y., Nishida, K., Nakamura, T., Chapagain, S. K., Inoue, D., Sei, K., et al. (2012). Characterization of microbial communities distributed in the groundwater pumped from deep tube wells in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Journal of Water and Health, 10, 170–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Yamashita, T., Sugiyama, M., Tsuzuki, H., Sakae, K., Suzuki, Y., & Miyazaki, Y. (2000). Application of a reverse transcription-PCR for identification and differentiation of Aichi virus, a new member of the Picornavirus family associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 2955–2961.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary ResearchUniversity of YamanashiKofuJapan
  2. 2.Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations