Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 195–207 | Cite as

The Impact of the Extreme Amazonian Flood Season on the Incidence of Viral Gastroenteritis Cases

  • Carmen Baur Vieira
  • Adriana de Abreu Corrêa
  • Michele Silva de Jesus
  • Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz
  • Peter Wyn-Jones
  • David Kay
  • Mônica Simões Rocha
  • Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Original Paper


During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses. Human adenoviruses, group A rotaviruses and genogroup II noroviruses were detected in 100, 77.5 and 27.5% of the samples, respectively, in concentrations of 103–106 GC/L. All samples were compliant with local bacteriological standards. HAdV2 and 41 and RVA G2, P[6], and P[8] were characterised. Astroviruses, sapoviruses, genogroup IV noroviruses, klasseviruses, bocaviruses and aichiviruses were not detected. Statistical analyses showed correlations between river stage level and reported gastroenteritis cases and, also, significant differences between virus concentrations during this extreme event when compared with normal dry seasons and previous flood seasons of the Negro River. These findings suggest an association between the extreme flood experienced and gastrointestinal cases in the affected areas providing circumstantial evidence of causality between the elevations in enteric viruses in surface waters and reported illness.


Amazon Enteric viruses Flood Negro River qPCR 



This work was funded by Viroclime project ( as part of the European Union 7th Framework Programme for Research, contract number 243923. We thank the PDTIS DNA Sequence Platform staff at FIOCRUZ-RJ for technical support in sequencing reactions and the FIOCRUZ-Manaus team for helping with samplings. This research work is within the scope of the activities of FIOCRUZ as a collaborating centre of PAHO/WHO of Public and Environmental Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Baur Vieira
    • 1
  • Adriana de Abreu Corrêa
    • 2
  • Michele Silva de Jesus
    • 3
  • Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz
    • 3
  • Peter Wyn-Jones
    • 4
  • David Kay
    • 4
  • Mônica Simões Rocha
    • 1
  • Marize Pereira Miagostovich
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC)Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Virological Diagnosis Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology (MIP), Biomedical InstituteFederal Fluminense University (UFF)NiteróiBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Infectious Disease Ecology in the Amazon, Leônidas & Maria Deane Institute (ILMD)Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)ManausBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Earth Sciences (DGES)Aberystwyth UniversityCeredigionUK

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