Advertisement

Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 159–163 | Cite as

Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures

  • Monika Kubankova
  • Petr Kralik
  • Jiri Lamka
  • Vladimir Zakovcik
  • Marek Dolanský
  • Petra Vasickova
Original Paper

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

Keywords

Captive animals Free-living animals Real-time RT-PCR Sequence analysis Zoonosis Epizootology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Neysan Donnelly (Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Germany) for grammatical corrections of the manuscript. The results of the Project LO1218 were obtained with financial support from the MEYS of the CR under the NPU I program and supported by Grants NT13884-4/2012 and QJ1210113.

References

  1. Adlhoch, C., Wolf, A., Meisel, H., Kaiser, M., Ellerbrok, H., & Pauli, G. (2009). High HEV presence in four different wild boar populations in East and West Germany. Veterinary Microbiology, 139, 270–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chalupa, P., Vasickova, P., Pavlik, I., & Holub, M. (2014). Endemic hepatitis E in the Czech Republic. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58, 509–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. de Deus, N., Peralta, B., Pina, S., Allepuz, A., Mateu, E., Vidal, D., et al. (2008). Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in European wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Spain. Veterinary Microbiology, 129, 163–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Di Bartolo, I., Diez-Valcarce, M., Vasickova, P., Kralik, P., Hernandez, M., Angeloni, G., et al. (2012). Detection of hepatitis E virus throughout the pork production chain in three European countries, using harmonized protocols. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 1282–1289.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Haqshenas, G., Shivaprasad, H. L., Woolcock, P. R., Read, D. H., & Meng, X. J. (2001). Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis e virus from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. Journal of General Virology, 82, 2449–2462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Johne, R., Plenge-Bonig, A., Hess, M., Ulrich, R. G., Reetz, J., & Schielke, A. (2010). Detection of a novel hepatitis E-like virus in faeces of wild rats using a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR. Journal of General Virology, 91, 750–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar, S., Tamura, K., & Nei, M. (2004). MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 5, 150–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lapin, M. R. (2005). General concepts in zoonotic diseases control. Veterinary Clinics Small Animal Practice, 35, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lu, L., Li, C., & Hagedorn, C. H. (2006). Phylogenetic analysis of global hepatitis E virus sequences: Genetic diversity, subtypes and zoonosis. Reviews in Medical Virology, 16, 5–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mackenzie, J. S., & Jeggo, M. (2013). Reservoirs and vectors of emerging viruses. Current Opinion in Virology, 3, 170–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Martelli, F., Caprioli, A., Zengarini, M., Marata, A., Fiegna, C., Di Bartolo, I., et al. (2008). Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a demographic managed wild boar (Sus scrofa) population in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology, 126, 74–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Meng, X. J. (2013). Zoonotic and food transmission of hepatitis E virus. Seminars in Liver Disease, 33, 41–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Meng, X. J., Purcell, R. H., Halbur, P. G., Lehman, J. R., Webb, D. M., Tsareva, T. S., et al. (1997). A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 9860–9865.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Nakamura, M., Takahashi, K., Taira, K., Taira, M., Ohno, A., Sakugawa, H., et al. (2006). Hepatitis E virus infection in wild mongooses of Okinawa, Japan: Demonstration of anti-HEV antibodies and a full-genome nucleotide sequence. Hepatology Research, 34, 137–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Reuter, G., Fodor, D., Forgach, P., Katai, A., & Szucs, G. (2009). Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains and animals in Hungary. Journal of Clinical Virology, 44, 277–281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Schielke, A., Sachs, K., Lierz, M., Appel, B., Jansen, A., & Johne, R. (2009). Detection of hepatitis E virus in wild boars of rural and urban regions in Germany and whole genome characterization of an endemic strain. Virology Journal, 6, 58–64.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Takahashi, K., Kitajima, N., Abe, N., & Mishiro, S. (2004). Complete or near-complete nucleotide sequences of hepatitis E virus genome recovered from a wild boar, a deer, and four patients who ate the deer. Virology, 330, 501–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Sato, H., Sato, Y., Jirintai, N. S., & Okamoto, H. (2011). Analysis of the full-length genome of a hepatitis E virus isolate obtained from a wild boar in Japan that is classifiable into a novel genotype. Journal of General Virology, 92, 902–908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Takahashi, K., Terada, S., Kokuryu, H., Arai, M., & Mishiro, S. (2010). A wild boar-derived hepatitis E virus isolate presumably representing so far unidentified “genotype 5”. Kanzo, 51, 536–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. van der Poel, W. H. M. (2014). Food and environmental routes of hepatitis E virus transmission. Current Opinion in Virology, 4, 91–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Vasickova, P., Kralik, P., Slana, I., & Pavlik, I. (2012). Optimisation of a triplex RT-PCR for detection of hepatitis E virus RNA and validation on biological samples. Journal of Virological Methods, 180, 38–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Vasickova, P., Psikal, I., Widén, F., Smitalova, R., Bendova, J., Pavlik, I., & Kralik, P. (2009). Detection and genetic characterisation of hepatitis E virus in Czech pig production herds. Research in Veterinary Science, 87, 143–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Vasickova, P., Slany, M., Chalupa, P., Holub, M., Svoboda, R., & Pavlik, I. (2011). Detection and phylogenetic characterization of human hepatitis E virus strains, Czech Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 917–919.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao, C., Ma, Z., Harrison, T. J., Feng, R., Zhang, C., Qiao, Z., et al. (2009). A novel genotype of hepatitis E virus prevalent among farmed rabbits in China. Journal of Medical Virology, 81, 1371–1379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Kubankova
    • 1
  • Petr Kralik
    • 1
  • Jiri Lamka
    • 2
  • Vladimir Zakovcik
    • 3
  • Marek Dolanský
    • 3
  • Petra Vasickova
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterinary Research InstituteBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec KraloveCharles University in PragueHradec KraloveCzech Republic
  3. 3.Central Military Veterinary Institute at HlucinHlucinCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations