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Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 232–245 | Cite as

A One Year Study on the Concentrations of Norovirus and Enteric Adenoviruses in Wastewater and A Surface Drinking Water Source in Norway

  • Ricardo C. Grøndahl-Rosado
  • Ekaterina Yarovitsyna
  • Elin Trettenes
  • Mette Myrmel
  • Lucy J. Robertson
Original Paper

Abstract

Enteric viruses transmitted via the faecal-oral route occur in high concentrations in wastewater and may contaminate drinking water sources and cause disease. In order to quantify enteric adenovirus and norovirus genotypes I and II (GI and GII) impacting a drinking source in Norway, samples of surface water (52), wastewater inlet (64) and outlet (59) were collected between January 2011 and April 2012. Samples were concentrated in two steps, using an electropositive disc filter and polyethylene glycol precipitation, followed by nucleic acid extraction and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in 47/52 (90.4 %) of surface water, 59/64 (92 %) of wastewater inlet and 55/59 (93 %) of wastewater outlet samples. Norovirus GI occurred in the highest concentrations in surface water (2.51e + 04) and adenovirus in wastewater (2.15e + 07). While adenovirus was the most frequently detected in all matrices, norovirus GI was more frequently detected in surface water and norovirus GII in wastewater. This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source.

Keywords

Norovirus Human adenovirus Drinking water Wastewater Quantitative PCR Public health 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been developed within the VISK project, from the Interreg IV A programme, financed by the European Union Regional Development Fund. Lena Solli Sal was the main contact at the DWTP and provided the data on water parameters. We would also like to thank Tor Håkonsen (VA-support AS, Kløfta, Norway) and Arve Heistad, Razak Seidu and Vegard Nilsen (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway) for their useful discussions around the data collection and analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo C. Grøndahl-Rosado
    • 1
  • Ekaterina Yarovitsyna
    • 1
  • Elin Trettenes
    • 2
  • Mette Myrmel
    • 1
  • Lucy J. Robertson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Science and BiomedicineNorwegian University of Life SciencesOsloNorway
  2. 2.Virology SectionNational Veterinary InstituteOsloNorway

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