Occurrence of Human Enteric Viruses in Commercial Mussels at Retail Level in Three European Countries
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- Diez-Valcarce, M., Kokkinos, P., Söderberg, K. et al. Food Environ Virol (2012) 4: 73. doi:10.1007/s12560-012-9078-9
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In this study, the prevalence of different enteric viruses in commercial mussels was evaluated at the retail level in three European countries (Finland, Greece and Spain). A total of 153 mussel samples from different origins were analysed for human norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Human adenovirus (HAdV) was also tested as an indicator of human faecal contamination. A full set of controls (such as sample process control, internal amplification controls, and positive and negative controls) were implemented during the process. The use of a sample process control allowed us to calculate the efficiencies of extraction, which ranged from 79 to 0.5 %, with an average value of 10 %. Samples were positive in 41 % of cases, with HAdV being the most prevalent virus detected (36 %), but no significant correlation was found between the presence of HAdV and human NoV, HAV and HEV. The prevalences of human norovirus genogroup II, HEV and human NoV genogroup I were 16, 3 and 0.7 %, respectively, and HAV was not detected. The estimated number of PCR detectable units varied between 24 and 1.4 × 103 g−1 of digestive tract. Interestingly, there appeared to be a significant association between the type of mussel species (M. galloprovincialis) and the positive result of samples, although a complete overlap between country and species examined required this finding to be confirmed including samples of both species from all possible countries of origin.