Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 73–80

Occurrence of Human Enteric Viruses in Commercial Mussels at Retail Level in Three European Countries

  • Marta Diez-Valcarce
  • Petros Kokkinos
  • Kirsi Söderberg
  • Martijn Bouwknegt
  • Kris Willems
  • Ana Maria de Roda-Husman
  • Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff
  • Maria Bellou
  • Marta Hernández
  • Leena Maunula
  • Apostolos Vantarakis
  • David Rodríguez-Lázaro
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12560-012-9078-9

Cite this article as:
Diez-Valcarce, M., Kokkinos, P., Söderberg, K. et al. Food Environ Virol (2012) 4: 73. doi:10.1007/s12560-012-9078-9

Abstract

In this study, the prevalence of different enteric viruses in commercial mussels was evaluated at the retail level in three European countries (Finland, Greece and Spain). A total of 153 mussel samples from different origins were analysed for human norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Human adenovirus (HAdV) was also tested as an indicator of human faecal contamination. A full set of controls (such as sample process control, internal amplification controls, and positive and negative controls) were implemented during the process. The use of a sample process control allowed us to calculate the efficiencies of extraction, which ranged from 79 to 0.5 %, with an average value of 10 %. Samples were positive in 41 % of cases, with HAdV being the most prevalent virus detected (36 %), but no significant correlation was found between the presence of HAdV and human NoV, HAV and HEV. The prevalences of human norovirus genogroup II, HEV and human NoV genogroup I were 16, 3 and 0.7 %, respectively, and HAV was not detected. The estimated number of PCR detectable units varied between 24 and 1.4 × 103 g−1 of digestive tract. Interestingly, there appeared to be a significant association between the type of mussel species (M. galloprovincialis) and the positive result of samples, although a complete overlap between country and species examined required this finding to be confirmed including samples of both species from all possible countries of origin.

Keywords

Enteric viruses Mussels Hepatitis A Norovirus Human adenovirus Real-Time PCR 

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Diez-Valcarce
    • 1
  • Petros Kokkinos
    • 2
  • Kirsi Söderberg
    • 3
  • Martijn Bouwknegt
    • 5
  • Kris Willems
    • 4
  • Ana Maria de Roda-Husman
    • 5
  • Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff
    • 3
  • Maria Bellou
    • 2
  • Marta Hernández
    • 1
  • Leena Maunula
    • 3
  • Apostolos Vantarakis
    • 2
  • David Rodríguez-Lázaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), Junta de Castilla y LeónValladolidSpain
  2. 2.Department of Public Health, Medical SchoolUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  3. 3.Department of Food and Environmental HygieneUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S)Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  5. 5.National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations