Food and Environmental Virology

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 35–42 | Cite as

Comparison of the Activity of Alcohol-Based Handrubs Against Human Noroviruses Using the Fingerpad Method and Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  • Pengbo Liu
  • David R. Macinga
  • Marina L. Fernandez
  • Carrie Zapka
  • Hui-Mien Hsiao
  • Brynn Berger
  • James W. Arbogast
  • Christine L. Moe
Original Paper

Abstract

Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in the United States, and human hands play an important role in their transmission. Little is known about the efficacy of hand hygiene agents against these highly infectious pathogens. We investigated the activity of seven commercially available hand hygiene products against human noroviruses by in vivo fingerpad tests. The in vivo activity of alcohol-based handrubs ranged from 0.10 to 3.74 log reduction and was not solely dependent on alcohol concentration. A handrub (VF481) based on 70% ethanol and a blend of other skin care ingredients reduced Norwalk virus (NV) by 3.74 log in 15 s and provided significantly greater NV reduction than all the other products tested (P < 0.001). Furthermore, VF481 was the most effective product tested against the NoV genogroup II strains Snow Mountain virus (GII.2) and a GII.4 strain. These results demonstrate that alcohol by itself is not effective against NoV, but effective formulation of alcohol-based handrubs can achieve significant reduction of norovirus RNA on fingers.

Keywords

Norovirus Quantitative RT-PCR Handrub Fingerpad ASTM 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengbo Liu
    • 1
  • David R. Macinga
    • 2
  • Marina L. Fernandez
    • 3
  • Carrie Zapka
    • 2
  • Hui-Mien Hsiao
    • 4
  • Brynn Berger
    • 5
  • James W. Arbogast
    • 2
  • Christine L. Moe
    • 4
  1. 1.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.GOJO Industries, Inc.AkronUSA
  3. 3.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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