Cognitive Computation

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 719–734 | Cite as

Rank-Based Gravitational Search Algorithm: a Novel Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Clustering

  • Sepehr Ebrahimi Mood
  • Mohammad Masoud JavidiEmail author


Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have had many real-world applications; they have thus become one of the most interesting areas of research. The network lifetime is a major challenge researched on this topic with clustering protocols being the most popular method used to deal with this problem. Determination of the cluster heads is the main issue in this method. Cognitively inspired swarm intelligence algorithms have attracted wide attention in the researh area of clustering since it can give machines the ability to self-learn and achieve better performance. This paper presents a novel nature-inspired optimization algorithm based on the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and uses this algorithm to determine the best cluster heads. First, the authors propose a rank-based definition for mass calculation in GSA. They also introduce a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to compute the parameter of this method automatically. Accordingly, this algorithm is user independent. Then, the proposed algorithm is used in an energy efficient clustering protocol for WSNs. The proposed search algorithm is evaluated in terms of some standard test functions. The results suggest that this method has a better performance than other state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. In addition, simulation results indicate that the proposed clustering method outperforms other popular clustering method for WSNs. The proposed method is a novel way to control the exploration and exploitation abilities of the algorithm with simplicity in implementation; therefore, it has a good performance in some real-world applications such as energy efficient clustering in WSNs.


Wireless sensor network (WSN) Energy efficient protocol Clustering method Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) Rank-based selection Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not required as no human or animals were involved.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and ComputerShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran

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