Cognitive Computation

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 34–43 | Cite as

Brain Evoked Potential Latencies Optimization for Spatial Auditory Brain–Computer Interface

  • Zhenyu Cai
  • Shoji Makino
  • Tomasz M. Rutkowski


We propose a novel method for the extraction of discriminative features in electroencephalography (EEG) evoked potential latency. Based on our offline results, we present evidence indicating that a full surround sound auditory brain–computer interface (BCI) paradigm has potential for an online application. The auditory spatial BCI concept is based on an eight-directional audio stimuli delivery technique, developed by our group, which employs a loudspeaker array in an octagonal horizontal plane. The stimuli presented to the subjects vary in frequency and timbre. To capture brain responses, we utilize an eight-channel EEG system. We propose a methodology for finding and optimizing evoked response latencies in the P300 range in order later to classify them correctly and to elucidate the subject’s chosen targets or ignored non-targets. To accomplish the above, we propose an approach based on an analysis of variance for feature selection. Finally, we identify the subjects’ intended commands with a Naive Bayesian classifier for sorting the final responses. The results obtained with ten subjects in offline BCI experiments support our research hypothesis by providing higher classification results and an improved information transfer rate compared with state-of-the-art solutions.


Auditory BCI Spatial auditory cognition EEG Event-related potential (ERP) Feature extraction Statistical signal processing 



This research was supported in part by the Strategic Information and Communications R&D Promotion Program No. 121803027 of The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication in Japan and by KAKENHI, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant Nos. 12010738 and 24700154. We also acknowledge the technical support of YAMAHA Sound & IT Development Division in Hamamatsu, Japan.

Author Contributions

Zhenyu Cai, Tomasz M. Rutkowski: Performed the EEG experiments and analyzed the data. Tomasz M. Rutkowski: Conceived the concept of the spatial auditory BCI and designed the EEG experiments. Shoji Makino: Coordinated and supported the project. Zhenyu Cai, Tomasz M. Rutkowski: Wrote the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhenyu Cai
    • 1
  • Shoji Makino
    • 2
  • Tomasz M. Rutkowski
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Systems and Information EngineeringUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA) CenterUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.RIKEN Brain Science InstituteWako-shiJapan

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