Advertisement

Adaptive PSO-LS-wavelet H control for two-wheeled self-balancing scooter

  • Askar Azizi
  • Hamid Nourisola
  • Amin Sadeghi-Emamgholi
  • Fahime Naderisafa
Regular Papers Control Theory and Applications

Abstract

The current study is concerned with adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Least Square Wavelet H for a two-wheel self-balancing scooter that provides a platform in order to balance itself and transport the driver in accordance to its natural lean. In order to keep the rider close to the upright position over smooth and non-smooth surfaces, providing a stable control system is the main challenge for the aforementioned vehicle. For this purpose, H is combined with adaptive algorithm, Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to construct the adaptive control. The most important feature of the proposed control strategy is its inherent robustness and ability to handle the nonlinear behavior of the system. Simulations results indicated that the introduced motion control architecture is capable of providing appropriate control actions to achieve both position control and trajectory tracking satisfactorily.

Keywords

Adaptive H least square wavelet particle swarm optimization two-wheeled self-balancing scooter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    H. S. Juang and K. Y. Lurrr, “Design and control of a twowheel self-balancing robot using the Arduino microcontroller board,” Proc. of 10th IEEE Int. Conf. on Control and Automation (ICCA), pp. 634–639, 2013.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Wasif, D. Reza, W. Rasheed, Z. Farooq, and S. Q. ali, “Design and implementation of a two wheel self balancing robot with a two level adaptive control,” Proc. of 8th Int. Conf. on Digital Information Management (ICDIM), pp. 187–193, 2013.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Searock, B. Browning, and M. Veloso, “Turning segways into robust human-scale dynamically balanced soccer robots,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3276, pp. 60–71, 2004. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. S. Hu, M. C. Tsai, F. R. Hu, and Y. Hori, “Robust control for coaxial two-wheeled electric vehicle,” Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 172–180, April 2010.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    F. Grasser, A. D. Arrigo, and S. Colombi, “JOE: a Mobile, inverted pendulum,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 107–114, February 2002. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    L. Vermeiren, A. Dequidt, T. M. Guerra, H. Rago-Tirmant, and M. Parent, “Modeling, control and experimental verification on a two-wheeled vehicle with free inclination: an urban transportation system,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 744–756, July 2011. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. F. Nickel, F. D. Foster, S. Koegel, and K. C. Gibson, Complaint of Segwey Inc. and DEKA Products Limited Partnership under Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, AS Amended, United States International Trade Commission, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    L. J. Pinto, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, and C. S. Han, “Development of a segway robot for an intelligent transport system,” IEEE/SICE Int. Symposium on System Integration (SII), pp. 710–715, 2012. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    J. K. Chuang, P. Y. Lu, Y. G. Leu, and Y. S. Lin, “Bacterialbased control of two wheeled vehicles,” Proc. of 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Control & Automation (ICCA), pp. 551–555, 2014. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    W. Zhou, Platform for Ergonomic Steering Methods Investigation of ‘Segway-style’ Balancing Scooters, M.Sc Thesis, University of Waikato, New Zealand, 2008.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. B. Morrell and D. Field, “Design of a closed loop controller for a two wheeled balancing transporter,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 4059–4064, 2007.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Sasaki, N. Yanagihara, O. Matsumoto, and K. Komoriya, “Steering control of the personal riding-type wheeled mobile platform (PMP),” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1697–1702, 2005.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. Küçük, Design of Two-wheeled Twin Rotored Hybrid Robotic Platform, M.Sc Thesis, Atilim University, Turky, 2008.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Segway Inc; Reference Manual Segway® PT i2, x2, Segway Customer Care: 866.4SEGWAY (866.473.4929), 2006.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. J. Rincon-Pasaye, J. A. Bonales-Valencia, and F. J. Perez, “Tilt measurement based on an accelerometer, a gyro and a Kalman filter to control a self-balancing vehicle,” IEEE Int. Autumn Meeting on Power, Electronics and Computing (ROPEC), pp. 1–5, 2013. [click]Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    G. H. Lee, and S. Jung, “Line tracking control of a twowheeled mobile robot using visual feedback,” International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 10, no. 177, pp. 1–8, March 2013.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    O. Boubaker, “The inverted pendulum benchmark in nonlinear control theory: a survey,” Int. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 10, no. 233, pp. 1–9, May 2013.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    R. P. M Chan, K. A. Stol, and C. R. Halkyard, “Review of modelling and control of two-wheeled robots,” Annual Reviews in Control, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 89–103, April 2013. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad, and J. H. S. Osman, “Development of a two-wheeled inverted pendulum mobile robot,” Proc. of 5th Student Conf. on Research and Development, pp. 1–5, 2007. [click]Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. C. Lin and C. C. Tsai, “Development of a self-balancing human transportation vehicle for the teaching of feedback control,” IEEE Trans. Education, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 157–168, February 2009. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    T. Takei, R. Imamura, and S. Yuta, “Baggage transportation and navigation by a wheeled inverted pendulum mobile robot,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 3985–3994, October 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    H. T. Yau, C. C. Wang, N. S. Pai, and M. J. Jang, “Robust control method applied in self-balancing two-wheeled robot,” Proc. of 2th Int. Symposium on Knowledge Acquisition and Modeling, vol. 1, pp. 268–271, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. Wu. Y Liang, and Z. Wang, “A robust control method of two-wheeled self-balancing robot,” 6th Int. Forum on Strategic Technology, pp. 1031–1035, 2011.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    B. Dumitrascu, A. Filipescu, V. Minzu, and A. Filipescu-Jr, “Backstepping control of wheeled mobile robots,” Proc. of 15th Int. Conf. on System Theory, Control, and Computing (ICSTCC), pp. 1–6, 2011.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    E. J. Hwang, H. S. Kang, C. H. Hyun, and M. Park, “Robust backstepping control based on a Lyapunov redesign for skid-steered wheeled mobile robots,” International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 10, no. 26, pp. 1–8, January 2013.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    P. V. Kokotovi, “The joy of feedback: nonlinear and adaptive,” IEEE Control Systems Mag., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 7–17, June 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    C. C. Tsai and S. Y. Ju, “Trajectory tracking and regulation of a self-balancing two-wheeled robot: a backstepping sliding-mode control approach,” Proc. of SICE Annual Conf., pp. 2411–2418, 2010.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Z. Kausar, K. Stol, and N. Patel, “The effect of terrain inclination on performance and the stability region of two-wheeled mobile robots,” International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol. 9, no. 218, pp. 1–11, 2012.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    B. S. Park, S. J. Yoo, J. B. Park, and Y. H. Choi, “Adaptive neural sliding mode control of nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots with model uncertainty,” IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technolog., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 207–214, Jan 2009. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    C. C. Tsai, H. C. Huang, and S. C. Lin, “Adaptive neural network control of a self-balancing two-wheeled scooter,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1420–1428, April 2010. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    M. Harris-Khan, M. Chaudhry, T. Tariq, Q. U. A. Fatima, and U. Izhar, “Fabrication and modelling of segway,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 280–285, 2014. [click]Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    S. Balasubramanian, and M. N. Lathiff, Self Balancing Robot, Engineering Physics Projects, University of British Columbia, 2011.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    A. Maddahi, A. H. Shamekhi, and A. Ghaffari, “A Lyapunov controller for self-balancing two-wheeled vehicles,” Robotica, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 225–239, Jan 2014. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    J. Solis, R. Nakadate, Y. Yoshimura, Y. Hama, and A. Takanishi, “Development of the two-wheeled inverted pendulum type mobile robot WV-2R for educational purposes,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2347–2352, 2009. [click]Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    M. A. Clark, J. B. Field, S. G. Mc-Mahon, and P. S. Philps, EDGAR, A Self-Balancing Scooter, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, 2005.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    S. M. Pandhiani and A. B. Shabri, “Time series forecasting using wavelet-least squares support vector machines and wavelet regression models for monthly stream flow data,” Open Journal of Statistics, vol. 3, pp. 183–194, May 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    L. Zhang, W. Zhou, and L. Jiao, “Wavelet support vector machine,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 34–39, February 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    H. Nourisola, “Wavelet kernel based on identification for nonlinear hybrid systems,” Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 5235–5243, April 2014.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Y. Shi, “Particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Neural Networks Society, pp. 8–13, 2004.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Neural Networks, pp. 1942–1948, 1995. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems and The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Askar Azizi
    • 1
  • Hamid Nourisola
    • 1
  • Amin Sadeghi-Emamgholi
    • 2
  • Fahime Naderisafa
    • 3
  1. 1.Electrical Control Engineering Group, Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Malek Ashatr University of technologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Kashan BranchKashanIran

Personalised recommendations