An extended any-angle path planning algorithm for maintaining formation of multi-agent jellyfish elimination robot system

  • Hanguen Kim
  • Donghoon Kim
  • Hyungjin Kim
  • Jae-Uk Shin
  • Hyun Myung
Regular Papers Robot and Applications


In recent years, the increasing influence of climate change has given rise to an uncontrolled proliferation of jellyfish in marine habitats that has visibly damaged many ecosystems and industries and poses a threat to human life. To resolve this issue, our team developed a robotic system called JEROS (Jellyfish Elimination RObotic Swarm) to successfully and efficiently remove jellyfish. JEROS consists of multiple unmanned surface vehicles that freely move in a marine environment to scavenge for and eliminate jellyfish. For controlling formation of JEROS, the leader-follower scheme is used, but this can be sometimes difficult to apply in an ocean environment. When the follower robots are tracking in accordance with the leader’s following route without the performance limitation of the robot being considered, the formation cannot be well maintained even if a formation control algorithm is applied to the robots. Maintaining formation is important for efficiency of the jellyfish removal operation. If the formation cannot be well maintained while the robots are moving, the operation area becomes irregular and consequently, the removal operation entails performing repetitive tasks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose the extended any-angle, named extended ARC (Angular-Rate-Constrained)-Theta* path planning algorithm for maintaining formation of the JEROS system to enhance the efficiency of jellyfish removal. To evaluate the performance of the proposed path planning algorithm, we performed field tests at Bang-dong Reservoir in Daejeon, South Korea.


Formation control multi-agent robot path planning unmanned surface vehicle 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    H.-S. Choi, “Scientists seek beneficial uses for jellyfish,” The Korea Herald, ud=20120826000052, accessed 4 Dec. 2012.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    I.-O. Kim, H.-C. An, J.-K. Shin, and B.-J. Cha, “The development of basic structure of jellyfish separator system for a trawl net,” Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology (in Korean), vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 99–111, 2008. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    NFRDI, Trends of overseas fisheries, Technical Report, no. 2, 2005 (National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) of South Korea issued in Korean).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    F. Matsuura, N. Fujisawa, and S. Ishikawa, “Detection and removal of jellyfish using underwater image analysis,” J. Visualization, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 259–260, 2007. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J.-H. Lee, D.-S. Kim, W.-J. Lee, and S.-B. Lee, “System and method to prevent the impingement of marine organisms at the intake of power plants,” Korean Patent 10-0558267-00-00, 2006.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    D. Kim, J.-U. Shin, H. Kim, D. Lee, S.-M. Lee, and H. Myung, “JEROS: Jellyfish removal robot system,” Proc. the Eighth Int’l Conf. Humanized System (ICHS), pp. 336–338, 2012.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. Kim, J.-U. Shin, H. Kim, D. Lee, S.-M. Lee, and H. Myung, “Development of jellyfish removal robot system JEROS,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intell. (URAI), pp. 599–600, 2012. [click]Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    D. Kim, J.-U. Shin, H. Kim, D. Lee, S.-M. Lee, and H. Myung, “Experimental tests of autonomous jellyfish removal robot system JEROS,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Robot Intell. Technology (RiTA), pp. 395–403, 2012. [click]Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    D. Kim, J.-U. Shin, H. Kim, H. Kim, D. Lee, S.-M. Lee, and H. Myung, “Design and implementation of unmanned surface vehicle JEROS for jellyfish removal,” J. Korea Robot. Soc., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2013. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    I. A. Ihle, J. Jouffroy, and T. I. Fossen, “Formation control of marine surface craft: A Lagrangian approach,” IEEE J. Oceanic Engineering, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 922–934, 2006. [click]CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    F. Fahimi, “Sliding-mode formation control for underactuated surface vessels,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 617–622, 2007. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. Cui, S. S. Ge, B. V. Ee How, and Y. S. Choo, “Leaderfollower formation control of underactuated autonomous underwater vehicles,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 37, no. 17, pp. 1491–1502, 2010. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. Bibuli, G. Bruzzone, M. Caccia, A. Gasparri, A. Priolo, and E. Zereik, “Swarm-based path-following for cooperative unmanned surface vehicles,” Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, vol. 228, no. 2, pp. 192–207, 2014. [click]Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Breivik, V. E. Hovstein, and T. I. Fossen, “Ship formation control: A guided leader-follower approach,” Proc. IFAC World Congress, pp. 16008–16014, 2008. [click]Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    T. Fossen, Marine Control Systems: Guidance, Navigation and Control of Ships, Rigs and Underwater Vehicles, Marine Cybernetics, Trondheim, 2002.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Garrido, L. Moreno, and P. U. Lima, “Robot formation motion planning using Fast Marching,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 675–683, 2011. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. T. Lázaro, P. Urcola, L. Montano, and J. A. Castellanos, “Position tracking and path planning in uncertain maps for robot formations*,” Multi-vehicle Systems, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2012. [click]Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. E. Hart, N. J. Nilsson, and B. Raphael, “A formal basis for the heuristic determination of minimum cost paths,” IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 100–107, 1968. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    F.-L. Lian, “Cooperative path planning of dynamical multiagent systems using differential flatness approach,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 401–412, 2008. [click]Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. D. Barfoot, C. M. Clark, “Motion planning for formations of mobile robots,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 65–78, 2004. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    A. Janchiv, D. Batsaikhan, B. Kim, W. G. Lee, S.-G. Lee, “Time-efficient and complete coverage path planning based on flow networks for multi-robots,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 369–376, 2013. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. N. Asl, M. B. Menhaj, A. Sajedin, “Control of leaderfollower formation and path planning of mobile robots using Asexual Reproduction Optimization (ARO),” Applied Soft Computing, vol. 14, part c, pp. 563–576, 2014. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    H. Kim, D. Kim, J.-U. Shin, H. Kim, and H. Myung, “Angular rate-constrained path planning algorithm for unmanned surface vehicles,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 37–44, 2014. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    H. Kim, B. Park, and H. Myung, “Curvature Path Planning with High Resolution Graph for Unmanned Surface Vehicle,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Robot Intell. Technology (RiTA), pp. 147–154, 2012. [click]Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    A. Nash, K. Daniel, S. Koenig, and A. Felner, “Theta*: Any-angle path planning on grids,” Proc. the National Conf. Artif. Intell. (AAAI), pp. 1177–1183, 2007. http:// Scholar
  26. [26]
    H.-K. Lee, K. Choi, J. Park, and H. Myung, “Selfcalibration of gyro using monocular SLAM for an indoor mobile robot,” International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 558–566, 2012. [click]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Y. Wang, W. Yan, and W. Yan, “A leader-follower formation control strategy for AUVs based on line-of-sight guidance,” Proc. of IEEE International Conf. Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 4863–4867, Aug. 2009. [click]Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    S. M. LaValle, Planning Algorithms, Cambridge University Press, 2006.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems and The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanguen Kim
    • 1
  • Donghoon Kim
    • 1
  • Hyungjin Kim
    • 1
  • Jae-Uk Shin
    • 1
  • Hyun Myung
    • 1
  1. 1.Urban Robotics Laboratory (URL)KAISTDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations