Health and Technology

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 829–837 | Cite as

The role of smartphone-based education on the risk perception of type 2 diabetes in women with gestational diabetes

  • Maryam Ghaderi
  • Mansoureh Ashghali FarahaniEmail author
  • Neda Hajiha
  • Fatemeh Ghaffari
  • Hamid Haghani
Original Paper


Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) might ignore adherence to their treatment regimen and can be exposed to an increased risk of type II diabetes due to unawareness, a lack of access to healthcare services, and a poor perception of the disease. This study aimed to describe the effect of smartphone-education on risk-perception of type 2 diabetes in women with gestational diabetes. This quasi-experimental study included 90 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (n = 45 in each group) who were referred to the Yas hospital in Tehran, Iran. The gestational diabetes application was installed on the smartphones of members of the intervention group. The members of the control group only received routine prenatal education. The type 2 diabetes risk perception questionnaire was completed by both groups before and 6 wks after the intervention. The data were analyzed with chi-squared, paired-t, independent t, and Fisher exact tests, and a covariance analysis was applied using SPSS-16 software. Statistical significance was determined as a level of less than 0.05 in this study. The risk perception of type 2 diabetes differed between the two groups (p < 0.001), comparing the data that was collected before and 6 wks after the intervention. The intervention group members had more score changes. The smartphone-based education also resulted in lower average scores of the optimistic bias category among the intervention group members. Smartphone-based education provides a beneficial method of education due to the popularity, accessibility, and affordability of smartphones. Smartphones can be used to increase the risk perception of type II diabetes of women with gestational diabetes and accordingly decrease the rate of type II diabetes.


Diabetes type 2 Gestational diabetes Patient education Risk perception Smartphone application 



Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


Risk Perception Survey for Developing-Diabetes


Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval

Ethic approval of Iran university of Medical Sciences has was received (1396.9311686020) participants.

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Informed consent

Written consent for participation was received from.


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Copyright information

© IUPESM and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Ghaderi
    • 1
  • Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani
    • 2
    Email author
  • Neda Hajiha
    • 3
  • Fatemeh Ghaffari
    • 4
  • Hamid Haghani
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Nursing and MidwiferyIran University of Medical Sciences, nurse of Yas Hospital in Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Nursing Care Research Center (NCRC), School of Nursing and MidwiferyIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Tandis HospitalTehranIran
  4. 4.Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research InstituteBabol University of Medical SciencesBabolIran
  5. 5.Department of Biostatistics, School of ManagementIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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