Advertisement

Race and Social Problems

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 235–247 | Cite as

Mental Health Among Mexican-Origin Immigrant Families: The Roles of Cumulative Sociodemographic Risk and Immigrant-Related Stress

  • Catherine DeCarlo Santiago
  • Laura M. L. Distel
  • Anna M. Ros
  • Stephanie K. Brewer
  • Stephanie A. Torres
  • Jaclyn Lennon Papadakis
  • Anne K. Fuller
  • Yvita Bustos
Article

Abstract

The current study examined the unique effects of cumulative sociodemographic risk and immigrant-related stress on mental health symptoms among Mexican-origin immigrant parents and their school-age children. Further, this study tested whether the effects of cumulative sociodemographic risk and immigrant-related stress on child mental health were mediated by parent mental health. Participants included 104 Mexican-origin immigrant families. Families in the study had a child between the ages of 6 and 10 (Mage = 8.39; 61% female). Data were collected across three time points spaced 6 months apart. Immigrant-related stress was found to predict parent mental health, which in turn predicted child mental health. Cumulative sociodemographic risk did not predict parent or child mental health. Mental health symptoms generally decreased over time, but for children, change in mental health symptoms depended on parent mental health symptoms. Given the high levels of mental health symptoms among Mexican-origin parents and children, reducing a context of stress and promoting mental health interventions for Mexican-origin immigrants is critical.

Keywords

Cumulative risk Stress Immigrant Mental health Parent psychopathology 

Notes

Funding

This research was funded by the Foundation for Child Development under Grant No. LUC-1-13 (http://fcd-us.org; PI: Santiago).

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the Achenbach system of empirically based assessment school-age forms profiles. Burlington, VT: Aseba.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, J., Biello, K. B., Pedraza, F., Wintner, S., & Viruell-Fuentes, E. (2016). The association between anti-immigrant policies and perceived discrimination among Latinos in the US: A multilevel analysis. SSM-Population Health, 2, 897–903.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2012). Crossroads: The psychology of immigration in the new century. Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/topics/immigration/report.aspx.
  4. Anderson, R. E., Hussain, S. B., Wilson, M. N., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Williams, J. L. (2015). Pathways to pain: Racial discrimination and relations between parental functioning and child psychosocial well-being. Journal of Black Psychology, 41(6), 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Androff, D., Ayón, D., Becerra, D., Gurrola, M., Moya-Salas, L., Krysik, J., … Segal, E. (2011). U.S. immigration policy and immigrant children’s well-being: The impact of policy shifts. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 38, 77–98.Google Scholar
  6. Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Silberg, J., Eaves, L., & Costello, E. J. (2002). Depression scale scores in 8–17-year-olds: Effects of age and gender. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 1052–1063.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., Dulmen, M. H., & Sroufe, A. L. (2005). When more is not better: The role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 235–245.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00351.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkel, C., Knight, G. P., Zeiders, K. H., Tein, J. Y., Roosa, M. W., Gonzales, N. A., & Saenz, D. (2010). Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally related values. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(4), 893–915.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00668.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brabeck, K., & Xu, Q. (2010). The impact of detention and deportation on Latino immigrant children and families: A quantitative exploration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 32(3), 341–361.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986310374053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, S. B., Spieker, S., Burchinal, M., & Poe, M. D. (2006). Trajectories of aggression from toddlerhood to age 9 predict academic and social functioning through age 12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(8), 791–800.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01636.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Center for American Progress Immigration Team. (2014). The facts on immigration today. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2014/10/23/59040/the- facts-on-immigration-today-3/.
  14. Cervantes, R. C., Goldbach, J. T., & Padilla, A. M. (2012). Using qualitative methods for revising items in the Hispanic Stress Inventory. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 34(2), 208–231.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986312442495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cervantes, R. C., Padilla, A. M., & Salgado de Snyder, N. (1991). The Hispanic Stress Inventory: A culturally relevant approach to psychosocial assessment. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 438–447.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.3.3.438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Child Trends. (2014). Immigrant children. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/immigrant-children/.
  17. Coelho, V. L. D., Strauss, M. E., & Jenkins, J. H. (1998). Expression of symptomatic distress by Puerto Rican and Euro-American Patients with depression and schizophrenia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 477–483.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199808000-00005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., & Martin, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 685–704.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00725.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179–193.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.2.179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cruz Nichols, V., LeBrón, A. M., & Pedraza, F. I. (2018). Policing us sick: The health of Latinos in an era of heightened deportations and racialized policing. PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(2), 293–297.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049096517002384.Google Scholar
  21. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Informant discrepancies in the assessment of childhood psychopathology: A critical review, theoretical framework, and recommendations for further study. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 483–509.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Derogatis, L. R. (1993). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures manual (3rd ed.). Minneapolis: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
  23. Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The brief symptom inventory: An introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13(3), 595–605.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700048017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dreby, J. (2015). U.S. immigration policy and family separation: The consequences for children’s well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 132, 245–251.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.08.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2013). Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1), 43–48.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans, G. W., Li, D., & Whipple, S. S. (2013). Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 139(6), 1342–1396.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzales, N. A., Coxe, S., Roosa, M. W., White, R., Knight, G. P., Zeiders, K. H., & Saenz, D. (2011). Economic hardship, neighborhood context, and parenting: Prospective effects on Mexican–American adolescent’s mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47(1–2), 98–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9366-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonzalez-Barrera, A., & Lopez, M. H. (2013). A demographic portrait of Mexican-origin Hispanics in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/05/01/a-demographic-portrait-of-mexican-origin-hispanics-in-the-united-states/.
  30. Gulbas, L. E., & Zayas, L. H. (2017). Exploring the effects of U.S. immigration enforcement on the well-being of citizen children in Mexican immigrant families. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 3(4), 53–69.  https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2017.3.4.04.Google Scholar
  31. Hainmueller, J., Lawrence, D., Martén, L., Black, B., Figueroa, L., Hotard, M., … Laitin, D. D. (2017). Protecting unauthorized immigrant mothers improves their children’s mental health. Science, 357(6355), 1041–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Prins, S. J., Flake, M., Philbin, M., Frazer, M. S., Hagen, D., & Hirsch, J. (2017). Immigration policies and mental health morbidity among Latinos: A state-level analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 174, 169–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven: Yale University.Google Scholar
  35. Huang, C. (2017). Cross-informant agreement on the Child Behavior Checklist for Youths: A meta-analysis. Psychological Reports, 120(6), 1096–1116.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117717733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hudson, D. L., Puterman, E., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Matthews, K. A., & Adler, N. E. (2013). Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health. Social Science & Medicine, 97, 7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.07.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, S. Y., Schwartz, S. J., Perreira, K. M., & Juang, L. P. (2018). Culture’s influence on stressors, parental socialization, and developmental processes in the mental health of children of immigrants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 14, 343–370.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050817-084925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Landale, N. S., Hardie, J. H., Oropesa, R. S., & Hillemeier, M. M. (2015). Behavioral functioning among Mexican-origin children: Does parental legal status matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56(1), 2–18.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146514567896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laor, N., Wolmer, L., & Cohen, D. J. (2001). Mothers’ functioning and children’s symptoms 5 years after a SCUD missile attack. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(7), 1020–1026.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.7.1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levers, L. L., & Hyatt-Burkhart, D. (2012). Immigration reform and the potential for psychosocial trauma: The missing link of lived human experience. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 12(1), 68–77.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01254.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Loukas, A., Prelow, H. M., Suizzo, M. A., & Allua, S. (2008). Mothering and peer associations mediate cumulative risk effects for Latino youth. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(1), 76–85.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2007.00462.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 801–816.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9128-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mendelson, T., Rehkopf, D. H., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2008). Depression among Latinos in the United States: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(3), 355–366.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.3.355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Myers, H. F., Lesser, I., Rodriguez, N., Mira, C. B., Hwang, W. C., Camp, C., … Wohl, M. (2002). Ethnic differences in clinical presentation of depression in adult women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(2), 138–156.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.8.2.138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Patten, E. (2016). The nation’s Latino population is defined by its youth. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2016/04/20/the-nations-latino-population-is-defined-by-its-youth/#nearly-half-of-u-s-born-latinos-are-younger-than-18.
  46. Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31(4), 437–448.  https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986031004437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Salas, L. M., Ayón, C., & Gurrola, M. (2013). Estamos traumados: The effect of anti-immigrant sentiment and policies on the mental health of Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(8), 1005–1020.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Segal, U. A., & Mayadas, N. S. (2005). Assessment of issues facing immigrant and refugee families. Child Welfare, 84(5), 563–583.Google Scholar
  49. Taylor, Z. E., Widaman, K. F., & Robins, R. W. (2017). Longitudinal relations of economic hardship and effortful control to active coping in Latino youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 28(2), 396–411.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tofighi, D., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). RMediation: An R package for mediation analysis confidence intervals. Behavior Research Methods, 43(3), 692–700.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-011-0076-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tofighi, D., & Thoemmes, F. (2014). Single-level and multilevel mediation analysis. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(1), 93–119.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431613511331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2008). The relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(11), 1211–1219.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01941.x.Google Scholar
  53. Viruell-Fuentes, E. A., Miranda, P. Y., & Abdulrahim, S. (2012). More than culture: Structural racism, intersectionality theory and immigrant health. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 2099–2106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.12.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wadsworth, M. E., Raviv, T., Reinhard, C., Wolff, B., Santiago, C. D., & Einhorn, L. (2008). An indirect effects model of the association between poverty and child functioning: The role of children’s poverty-related stress. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 13(2–3), 156–185.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15325020701742185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wadsworth, M. E., Raviv, T., Santiago, C. D., & Etter, E. M. (2011). Testing the adaptation to poverty-related stress model: Predicting psychopathology symptoms in families facing economic hardship. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 646–657.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.581622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yoshikawa, H., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Gonzales, R. G. (2016). Unauthorized status and youth development in the United States: Consensus statement of the society for research on adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27(1), 4–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zeiders, K. H., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Derlan, C. L. (2013). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in Latino youths: Examining the role of gender and perceived discrimination. Developmental Psychology, 49, 951–963.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine DeCarlo Santiago
    • 1
  • Laura M. L. Distel
    • 1
  • Anna M. Ros
    • 1
  • Stephanie K. Brewer
    • 1
  • Stephanie A. Torres
    • 1
  • Jaclyn Lennon Papadakis
    • 1
  • Anne K. Fuller
    • 2
  • Yvita Bustos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Center for Depression Research and Clinical CareUT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations