Variations in Citizenship Profiling by Generational Status: Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics of Latina/os Questioned by Law Enforcement About Their Legal Status
Although racial profiling is widely studied, the related issue of citizenship profiling by law enforcement has received little scholarly attention. In this study we begin to address citizenship profiling, which may be highly salient in light of the increasing policing of immigration in the United States through Secure Communities and other federal, state and local efforts to localize the enforcement of immigration laws. Using a sample of 563 Latina/o adults residing in 46 neighborhoods in El Paso County, Texas, USA, we assess the impacts of a variety of individual and neighborhood characteristics on the likelihood of being questioned about citizenship status by law enforcement. Results using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs) show that, at the individual-level, first-generation Latina/o immigrants and second-Latina/os are more likely to be questioned about citizenship status than third- and later-generation Latina/os. At the neighborhood-level, living in a neighborhood with a mid-level of Latina/o immigrant characteristics increased the probability of being questioned. The implications of these findings for citizenship profiling are discussed.
KeywordsCitizenship profiling Latina/os Immigrant neighborhoods Generational status Policing
We want to thank Harmon Hosch for his involvement in the data collection and Josiah Heyman for his thoughtful comments.
The data used in this study is based on the El Paso Neighborhood Survey funded by the National Science Foundation (Award 1251897, PI-Theodore Curry, Co-PI Maria Cristina Morales, and Co-PI Harmon Hosch) examining the immigration crime paradox.
- American Community Survey (ACS). (2015). Five-year 2008–2015 census tract data for El Paso County, Texas. https://www.census.gov/programs surveys/acs/. Accessed 2 March 2 2015.
- Briggs, C. (2014). The reasonableness of a race-based suspicion: The Fourth Amendment and the costs and benefits of racial profiling in immigration enforcement. Southern California Law Review, 88(2), 379–412.Google Scholar
- Bryk, A. S., & Stephen, W., & Raudenbush (1992). Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis. London: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
- Chavez, L. R. (2008). The Latina/o threat: Constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cox, A. B., & Miles, T. J. (2015). Legitimacy and cooperation: Will immigrants cooperate with local police who enforce federal immigration law? Coase-Sandor Working Paper Series in Law and Economics No. 734, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2018 from https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=2438&context=law_and_economics.
- Escobar, E. J. (1999). Race, police, and the making of a political Identity: Mexican Americans and the Los Angeles Police Department, 1900–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- García Hernández, C. C. (2015). PEP Vs. secure communities. CRIMMIGRATION: The intersectionality of criminal law and immigration law. http://crimmigration.com/2015/07/07/pep-vs-secure-communities/. Accessed 7 July 2015.
- Heck, R. H., Thomas, S., & Tabata, L. (2013). Multilevel modeling of categorical outcomes using IBM SPSS. Routledge.Google Scholar
- Heyman, J. M. (2010). Human rights and social justice briefing 1: Arizona’s immigration law S.B.1070. Society of Applied Anthropology, 21(3), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1995). Optimism and achievement: The educational performance of immigrant youth. Social Science Quarterly, 76(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
- Macías-Rojas, P. (2016). From deportation to prison: The politics of immigration enforcement in post-civil rights America. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Martínez, R. Jr. (2015). Latina/o homicide: Immigration, violence, and community. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Martínez, R. Jr., & Valenzuela, A. Jr. (2006). Immigration and crime: race, ethnicity, and violence. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
- Martínez Jr, R. (2008). Latina/o crime and delinquency in the U.S. In H. Rodriguez, R. Saenz & C. Menjivar (Eds.), Latinas/os in the U.S.: Changing the face of America (pp. (114–126). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- McDowell, M. G., & Wonders, N. A. (2009). Keeping migrants in their place: Technologies of control and racialized public space in Arizona. Social Justice, 36(2), 54–72.Google Scholar
- Miller, J. G. (2011). Search and destroy: African American males in the criminal justice system. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Mirandé, A. (1987). Gringo justice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
- Motomura, H. (2011). The discretion that matters: Federal immigration enforcement, state and local arrests, and the civil-criminal line. UCLA Law Review, 58, 1819.Google Scholar
- Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., Congdon, R., & Toit, Du, M (2011). Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling (HLM7). Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
- Rios, V. M. (2011). Punished: Policing the lives of black and Latina/o boys. New York: New.Google Scholar
- Sáenz, R. (2010). Latina/os, whites, and the shifting demography of Arizona. Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/Articles/2010/usarizonaLatina/os.aspx. Accessed 24 April 2014.
- Sáenz, R., Menjivar, C., & Garcia, S. J. E. (2011). Arizona’s SB 1070: Setting conditions for violations of human rights here and beyond. In J. Blau & M. Frezzo (Eds.), Sociology and human rights: A Bill of rights in the twenty-first century (pp. 155–178). Newbury Park: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
- Sáenz, R., & Morales, M. C. 2015. Latinos in the United States: Diversity and Change. Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Sampson, R. J., & Bean, L. (2006). Cultural mechanisms and killing fields: A revised theory of community-level racial inequality. In R. D. Peterson, L. Karvo & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime: Inequalities of race, ethnicity, and crime in America (pp. 8–36). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Stumpf, J. P. (2006). The crimmigration crisis: Immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. American University Law Review, 56, 367.Google Scholar
- Sweet, S., & Grace-Martin, K. (2012). Data analysis with SPSS: A first course in applied statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Trump, D. J. (2017). Executive Order: Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/25/executive-order-border-security-and-immigration-enforcement-improvements. Accessed May 1 2017.