Residential Segregation, Health, and Health Care: Answering the Latino Question
- 396 Downloads
The literature on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes for African Americans is well developed, but less is known about this association for Latinos in the USA. The literature for Latinos is limited, demonstrates mixed results, and suffers from data limitations. Using geographic concentration of poverty theory, we analyze the impact of Latino segregation on a series of health and health-care outcomes in order to better establish this relationship. This study uses data from the 2011 to 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System nested within metropolitan area-level data in a set of partial proportional odds and binary logistic multilevel regression models. We examine the relationship between Latino segregation and three health and health-care outcomes for 164 metropolitan areas in the USA. Overall, we find that Latino segregation is negatively related to good self-rated health, having a personal physician, and having health insurance for Latino respondents. Furthermore, for White respondents, no such association exists. As a result, residential segregation for Latinos contributes to the Latino–White health gap.
KeywordsRace/ethnicity Health disparities Latinos Segregation
The authors would like to thank Ada Wilkinson-Lee, Louise Roth, Joseph Galaskiewicz, and the members of the Social Inequality Workshop at the University of Arizona for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. The authors presented this paper at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association in 2012 in Denver, CO.
- Aguirre-Molina, M., Molina, C. W., & Zambrana, R. E. (2001). Health issues in the Latino community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Anderson, K. F., & Fullerton, A. S. (2012). Racial residential segregation and access to health-care coverage: A multilevel analysis. In J. J. Kronenfeld (Ed.), Issues in health and health care related to race/ethnicity, immigration, SES and gender (Research in the Sociology of Health Care, Vol. 30, pp. 133–158). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Borrell, L. N., Menendez, B. S., & Joseph, S. P. (2011). Racial/ethnic disparities on self-reported hypertension in New York City: Examining disparities among Hispanic subgroups. Ethnicity and Disease, 21(4), 429–436.Google Scholar
- Bullard, R. D. (2005). Environmental justice in the twenty-first century. In R. D. Bullard (Ed.), The quest for environmental justice: Human rights and the politics of pollution (pp. 19–42). San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.Google Scholar
- Do, D. P., Finch, B. K., Basurto-Davila, R., Bird, C., Escarce, J., & Lurie, N. (2008). Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/White health gap in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 67, 1258–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ellen, I.G., Cutler, D.M., & Dickens, W. (2000) Is segregation bad for your health? The case of low birth weight. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 203–238.Google Scholar
- Fullerton, A. S. (2009). A conceptual framework for ordered logistic regression models. Sociological Methods and Research, 38, 306–347.Google Scholar
- Haas, J. S., Phillips, K. A., Sonneborn, D., McCulloch, C. E., Baker, L. C., Kaplan, C. P., et al. (2004). Variation in access to health care for different racial/ethnic groups by the racial/ethnic composition of an individual’s county of residence. Medical Care, 42(7), 707–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Idler, E. L., & Kasl, S. (1995). Self-ratings of health: Do they also predict change in functional ability? Journal of Gerontology, 50B, S344–S353.Google Scholar
- Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Polednak, A. P. (1997). Segregation, poverty, and mortality in urban African Americans. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Skrondal, A. (2008). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata (2nd ed.). College Station, TX: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- Rabe-Hesketh, S., Skrondal, A. & Pickles, A. (2004) GLLAMM Manual. U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series. Working Paper 160. http://www.bepress.com/ucbbiostat/paper160/.
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar