Advertisement

Race and Social Problems

, Volume 4, Issue 3–4, pp 205–217 | Cite as

Racial Group Comparisons of Conceptualizations of Rap Music Constructs: A Cross-racial Validity Study of the Rap Music Attitude and Perception Scale

  • Edgar H. TysonEmail author
  • Darrin Porcher
Article

Abstract

Interpretations and perceptions of the effects and content of rap music lyrics have been given considerable attention in the literature in recent years, yet few assessment tools have been developed that can produce reliable and valid inferences about these views. One exception is the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale. This study examined the cross-racial effects on attitudes toward and perceptions of rap music using a sample of 1,254 college students. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather these data. Three specific hypotheses were tested and were supported or partially supported. Alpha reliabilities for the full scale and for each of the three sub-scales were good for black and white students separately. Criterion validity for these groups was also good. Finally, tests of factorial equivalence suggested that the factor structure of the RAP was equivalent across racial groups. The RAP is a tool with strong psychometric properties and can be used by practitioners and researchers working with black and white subgroups. Directions for future research on the utility of the RAP are forwarded.

Keywords

Measurement equivalence Cross-race validity Rap music Hip-hop culture Race differences 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Arbuckle, J. L. (1999). SPSS/AMOS IV. Chicago, IL: SmallWaters Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, E. G. (2001). Gangsta misogyny: A content analysis of the portrayals of violence against women in rap music, 1987–1993. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 8, 96–126.Google Scholar
  4. Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
  5. Chang, J. (2005). Can’t stop, won’t stop: A history of the hip-hop generation. NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Cole, E. R., & Stewart, A. J. (2001). Invidous comparisons: Imagining a psychology of race and gender beyond differences. Political Psychology, 22, 293–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooke, D. J., Kosson, D. S., & Michie, C. (2001). Psychopathy and ethnicity: Structural, item, and test generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in Caucasian and African American participants. Psychological Assessment, 13(4), 531–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Jesus, E. (2003). Youth cultural competence. Baltimore, MD: Youth Development and Research Fund.Google Scholar
  10. Elligan, D. (2004). Rap therapy: A practical guide for communicating with youth and young adults through rap music. New York, NY: Dafina Books.Google Scholar
  11. Forman, M., & Neal, M. A. (2004). That’s the joint!: The hip-hop studies reader. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Gan, S. L., Zillman, D., & Miltrook, M. (1997). Stereotyping effect of black women’s sexual rap on white audiences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19, 381–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structural analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, J. J., Jackson, L. A., & Gatto, L. (1995). Violent attitudes and deferred academic aspirations: Deleterious effects of exposure to rap music. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 27–41.Google Scholar
  15. Joreskog, K. G. (1993). Testing model structural equation models. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Kandakai, T. L., Price, J. H., Telljohann, S. K., & Wilson, C. A. (1999). Mother’s perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools. Journal of School Health, 69, 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Keith, T. Z., Fugate, M. H., DeGraff, M., Diamond, C. M., Shadrach, E. A., & Stevens, M. L. (1995). Using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis to test for construct bias: An example using the K-ABC. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13, 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kitwana, B. (2002). The hip hop generation: Young blacks and the crisis in African-American culture. New York, NY: Basic/Civitas.Google Scholar
  19. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kobin, C., & Tyson, E. H. (2006). Hip hop in therapy: Empathic connections and thematic goals for treatment with clients from urban settings. Arts in Psychotherapy, 33, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuwahara, Y. (1992). Power to the people y’all: Rap music, resistance, and black college students. Humanity and Society, 16, 54–73.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis, R. L., Thompson, M. E., Celious, A. K., & Brown, R. K. (2002). Rap music, is it really all bad? Why hip hop scholarship is important. African American Research Perspectives, 8, 67–69.Google Scholar
  23. Loehlin, J. C. (1998). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor path and structural analysis. Mahwah, New Jersey: LEA.Google Scholar
  24. Lynxwiler, J., & Gay, D. (2000). Moral boundaries and deviant music: Public attitudes toward heavy metal and rap. Deviant Behavior, 21, 63–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Changing demographics in the American population: Implications for research on minority children and adolescents. In V. C. McLoyd & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Studying minority adolescents: Conceptual, methodological, and theoretical issues (pp. 89–109). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstien, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw- Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Springer, D. W., Abell, N., & Nugent, W. R. (2002). Creating and validating rapid assessment instruments for social work practice and research: Part 2. Research on Social Work Practice, 12, 768–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Turner, S., DeMers, S. T., Fox, H. R., & Reed, G. M. (2001). APA’s guidelines for test user qualifications: An executive summary. American Psychologist, 56, 1099–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tyson, E. H. (2002). Hip hop therapy: An exploratory study of a rap music intervention in group therapy with at-risk and delinquent youth. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 15, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tyson, E. H. (2003a). A content analysis of empirical studies published on rap music over the past 15 years: What questions are we asking? Paper presented to the National association of black social workers, Jacksonville, Florida, April, 2003.Google Scholar
  31. Tyson, E. H. (2003b). Rap music in social work practice with African American and Latino youth: A conceptual model with practical applications. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 8, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tyson, E. H. (2004). Ethnic differences in using behavior rating scales in child mental health assessment: A conceptual and psychometric critique. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 34(3), 1167–1201.Google Scholar
  33. Tyson, E. H. (2005). The Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale: Preliminary analyses of psychometric properties. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11(3/4), 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyson, E. H. (2006). The Rap-music Attitude and Perception Scale: A validation study. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vogt, W. P. (1999). Dictionary of statistics and methodology: A non-technical guide for social sciences (2nd ed.). Thousands Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Winters, K. C., & Henley, G. A. (1989). Personal experience inventory and manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  37. Winters, K. C., Latimer, W. W., Stinchfiled, R. D., & Egan, E. (2004). Measuring adolescent drug abuse and psychosocial factors in four ethnic groups of drug-abusing boys. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Social ServiceFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.School of Criminal JusticeMonroe CollegeBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations