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Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 901–925 | Cite as

Recent advances in the design and applications of amyloid-β peptide aggregation inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease therapy

  • Safura Jokar
  • Saeedeh Khazaei
  • Hossein Behnammanesh
  • Amir Shamloo
  • Mostafa Erfani
  • Davood Beiki
  • Omid BaviEmail author
Review

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurological disorder that progresses gradually and can cause severe cognitive and behavioral impairments. This disease is currently considered a social and economic incurable issue due to its complicated and multifactorial characteristics. Despite decades of extensive research, we still lack definitive AD diagnostic and effective therapeutic tools. Consequently, one of the most challenging subjects in modern medicine is the need for the development of new strategies for the treatment of AD. A large body of evidence indicates that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide fibrillation plays a key role in the onset and progression of AD. Recent studies have reported that amyloid hypothesis–based treatments can be developed as a new approach to overcome the limitations and challenges associated with conventional AD therapeutics. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive view of the challenges in AD therapy and pathophysiology. We also discuss currently known compounds that can inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation and their potential role in advancing current AD treatments. We have specifically focused on Aβ aggregation inhibitors including metal chelators, nanostructures, organic molecules, peptides (or peptide mimics), and antibodies. To date, these molecules have been the subject of numerous in vitro and in vivo assays as well as molecular dynamics simulations to explore their mechanism of action and the fundamental structural groups involved in Aβ aggregation. Ultimately, the aim of these studies (and current review) is to achieve a rational design for effective therapeutic agents for AD treatment and diagnostics.

Keywords

Neurodegenerative diseases Amyloid-β fibrillation Metal chelators Nanotechnology Peptide inhibitors Computational methods 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Editorial Board Members of the Biophysical Reviews journal for their help in improving the clarity of expression of our manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials , Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  4. 4.Radiation Application Research SchoolNuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI)TehranIran
  5. 5.Research Center for Nuclear MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringShiraz University of TechnologyShirazIran

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