Extraction and recovery processes for cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. using aqueous solutions of surface-active ionic liquids
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Due to the wide range of relevant biological activities and high commercial value of cynaropicrin, and aiming at developing cost-effective processes, aqueous solutions of ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated for the extraction and recovery of cynaropicrin from the leaves of Cynara cardunculus L. Both cationic (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) and anionic (cholinium carboxylate) surface-active ILs were investigated, as well as a wide range of conventional surfactants and molecular organic solvents, allowing us to conclude that aqueous solutions of cationic surface-active ILs display a better performance for the extraction of cynaropicrin. Operational conditions were optimized, leading to a cynaropicrin extraction yield of 3.73 wt%. The recycling of both the biomass and the solvent were further investigated to appraise the extraction media saturation and to achieve a higher cynaropicrin extraction yield (6.47 wt%). Finally, it was demonstrated that 65 wt% of the extracted cynaropicrin can be efficiently recovered by precipitation from the IL aqueous extract through the addition of water as anti-solvent, allowing us to put forward both the extraction and recovery processes of the target value-added compound from biomass followed by solvent recycling. This approach opens the door to the development of more sustainable processes using aqueous solutions of ILs instead of the volatile organic solvents commonly used in biomass processing.
KeywordsCynaropicrin Biomass Extraction Recovery Ionic liquids Aqueous solutions
This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007679 (FCT Ref. UID/CTM/50011/2013), and projects Multibiorefinery (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016403) and Deep Biorefinery (PTDC/AGR-TEC/1191/2014), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. FCT/MEC is also acknowledged for the contract under Investigator FCT to C.S.R. Freire (IF/01407/2012). M.G. Freire acknowledges the European Research Council (ERC) for the starting grant ERC-2013-StG-337753. E.L.P. Faria acknowledges CNPq for the PhD grant (200908/2014-6). CEBAL and the project ValBioTecCynara are acknowledged for providing the cardoon leaves samples.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Emanuelle L. P. de Faria declares that she has no conflict of interest. Melissa V. Gomes declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ana Filipa M. Cláudio declares that she has no conflict of interest. Carmen S. R. Freire declares that she has no conflict of interest. Armando J. D. Silvestre declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mara G. Freire declares that she has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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