Formation and properties of amyloid fibrils of prion protein
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Amyloid fibrils formed from prion protein (PrP) are associated with prion diseases. In this review we discuss a number of extrinsic and intrinsic experimental factors related to the formation of PrP amyloid fibrils in vitro. We first examined the effects of ultrasonic power on the induction of amyloid fibrillation from PrP. The most important conclusion drawn from the results is that an applied ultrasonic power of approximately 2 W enhanced the nucleation of amyloid fibrils efficiently but that more powerful ultrasonication led to retardation of growth. We also reviewed evidence on the amyloidogenic regions of PrP based on peptide screening throughout the polypeptide sequence. These results showed that helix 2 (H2) peptides of PrP were capable of both the fibrillation and propagation of straight, long fibrils. Moreover, the conformation of preformed H2 fibrils changed reversibly depending on the pH of the solution, implying that interactions between side-chains modulated the conformation of amyloid fibrils. The evidence discussed in this review relates specifically to PrP but may be relevant to other amyloidogenic proteins.
KeywordsAmyloid fibrils Prion diseases Ultrasonication Amyloidogenic region Conformational change of amyloid fibrils
We thank Miki Horii and Sachie Hori for providing technical help. K.K. was supported in part by the grant for XFEL key technology and the X-ray Free Electron Lase Priority Strategy Program, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, and grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The study was also supported by a grant from the Practical Research Project for Rare/Intractable Disease of the Japan Agency for Medical Research Development (AMED).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Kei-ichi Yamaguchi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kazuo Kuwata declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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