Interaction of proteins with ionic liquid, alcohol and DMSO and in situ generation of gold nano-clusters in a cell
In this review, we give a brief overview on how the interaction of proteins with ionic liquids, alcohols and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) influences the stability, conformational dynamics and function of proteins/enzymes. We present experimental results obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on the effect of ionic liquid or alcohol or DMSO on the size (more precisely, the diffusion constant) and conformational dynamics of lysozyme, cytochrome c and human serum albumin in aqueous solution. The interaction of ionic liquid with biomolecules (e.g. protein, DNA etc.) has emerged as a current frontier. We demonstrate that ionic liquids are excellent stabilizers of protein and DNA and, in some cases, cause refolding of a protein already denatured by chemical denaturing agents. We show that in ethanol–water binary mixture, proteins undergo non-monotonic changes in size and dynamics with increasing ethanol content. We also discuss the effect of water–DMSO mixture on the stability of proteins. We demonstrate how large-scale molecular dynamics simulations have revealed the molecular origin of this observed phenomenon and provide a microscopic picture of the immediate environment of the biomolecules. Finally, we describe how favorable interactions of ionic liquids may be utilized for in situ generation of fluorescent gold nano-clusters for imaging a live cell.
KeywordsBinary mixture Conformational dynamics Folding/unfolding Ionic liquid MD simulation
Biman Jana gratefully acknowledges the supercomputing facility CRAY at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.
Thanks are due to the Department of Science and Technology J. C. Bose Fellowship for a generous research grant to Kankan Bhattacharyya and to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for awarding fellowships to Somen nandi, Sridip Parui and Ritaban Halder.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
Somen Nandi, Sridip Parui, Ritaban Halder Biman jana and Kankan Bhattacharyya declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this work
- Bhattacharjya S, Balaram P (1997) Effects of organic solvents on protein structures: observation of a structured helical core in hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. Proteins Struct Funct Genet 29:492–507. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0134(199712)29:4<492::AID-PROT9>3.0.CO;2-A CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Calandrini V, Onori G, Santucci A (2000) Effect of 1-alkanols on the native conformation of lysozyme. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2:4143–4146. https://doi.org/10.1039/b003746j
- Canongia Lopes JN, Padua AA (2006) Nano-structural organization in ionic liquids. J Phys Chem B 110:3330–3335. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp056006y
- Dobbs W, Heinrich B, Bourgogne C et al (2009) Mesomorphic imidazolium salts: new vectors for efficient siRNA Transfection. J Am Chem Soc 131:13338–13346. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja903028f
- Fukasawa T, Sato T (2011) Versatile application of indirect Fourier transformation to structure factor analysis: from X-ray diffraction of molecular liquids to small angle scattering of protein solutions. Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:3187–3196. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0cp01679a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin SR, Esposito V, De Los Rios P et al (2008) Cold denaturation of yeast frataxin offers the clue to understand the effect of alcohols on protein stability. J Am Chem Soc 130:9963–9970. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja803280e
- Sen Mojumdar S, Chowdhury R, Chattoraj S, Bhattacharyya K (2012) Role of ionic liquid on the conformational dynamics in the native, molten globule, and unfolded states of Cytochrome C: a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study. J Phys Chem B 116:12189–12198. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp307297s CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shirinfar B, Ahmed N, Park YS et al (2013) Selective fluorescent detection of RNA in living cells by using Imidazolium-based cyclophane. J Am Chem Soc 135:90–93. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja3112274
- Tanaka S, Oda Y, Ataka M et al (2001) Denaturation and aggregation of hen egg lysozyme in aqueous ethanol solution studied by dynamic light scattering. Biopolymers 59:370–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0282(20011015)59:5<370::AID-BIP1034>3.0.CO;2-Z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Triolo A, Russina O, Bleif HJ, Di Cola E (2007) Nanoscale segregation in room temperature ionic liquids. J Phys Chem B 111:4641–4644. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jp067705t