The many faces (and phases) of ceramide and sphingomyelin II – binary mixtures
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A rather widespread idea on the functional importance of sphingolipids in cell membranes refers to the occurrence of ordered domains enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide that are largely assumed to exist irrespective of the type of N-acyl chain in the sphingolipid. Ceramides and sphingomyelins are the simplest kind of two-chained sphingolipids and show a variety of species, depending on the fatty acyl chain length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. Abundant evidences have shown that variations of the N-acyl chain length in ceramides and sphingomyelins markedly affect their phase state, interfacial elasticity, surface topography, electrostatics, and miscibility, and that even the usually conceived “condensed” sphingolipids and many of their mixtures may exhibit liquid-like expanded states. Their lateral miscibility properties are subtlety regulated by those chemical differences. Even between ceramides with different acyl chain length, their partial miscibility is responsible for a rich two-dimensional structural variety that impacts on the membrane properties at the mesoscale level. In this review, we will discuss the miscibility properties of ceramide, sphingomyelin, and glycosphingolipids that differ in their N-acyl or oligosaccharide chains. This work is a second part that accompanies a previous overview of the properties of membranes formed by pure ceramides or sphingomyelins, which is also included in this Special Issue.
KeywordsSurface miscibility Langmuir films Compression isotherms Phase diagrams Brewster angle microscopy
This work was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT, FONCyT PICT 2014-1627), and the Secretary of Science and Technology of Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (SECyT-UNC), Argentina.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
María Laura Fanani declares that she has no conflicts of interest. Bruno Maggio declares that he has no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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