Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 189–199 | Cite as

Nuances of electrophoresis study of titin/connectin

  • Ivan M. Vikhlyantsev
  • Zoya A. Podlubnaya


Almost 40 years has passed since the discovery of giant elastic protein titin (also known as connectin) of striated and smooth muscles using gel electrophoresis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a major technique for studying the isoform composition and content of titin. This review provides historical insights into the technical aspects of the electrophoresis methods used to identify titin and its isoforms. We particularly focus on the nuances of the technique that improve the preservation of its primary structure so that its high molecular weight isoforms can be visualized.


Striated muscles Titin/connectin Titin isoforms SDS-Page 



We thank Sergey Udaltsov for helpful discussions on electrophoretic techniques. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 14-04-00112 and 17-04-00326).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Ivan M. Vikhlyantsev declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Zoya A. Podlubnaya declares that she has no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Theoretical and Experimental BiophysicsRussian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia
  2. 2.Pushchino State Institute of Natural SciencePushchinoRussia

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