Advertisement

Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 5–9 | Cite as

Glucose transporters: physiological and pathological roles

  • Archana M. Navale
  • Archana N. Paranjape
Review

Abstract

Glucose is a primary energy source for most cells and an important substrate for many biochemical reactions. As glucose is a need of each and every cell of the body, so are the glucose transporters. Consequently, all cells express these important proteins on their surface. In recent years developments in genetics have shed new light on the types and physiology of various glucose transporters, of which there are two main types—sodium–glucose linked transporters (SGLTs) and facilitated diffusion glucose transporters (GLUT)—which can be divided into many more subclasses. Transporters differ in terms of their substrate specificity, distribution and regulatory mechanisms. Glucose transporters have also received much attention as therapeutic targets for various diseases. In this review, we attempt to present a simplified view of this complex topic which may be of interest to researchers involved in biochemical and pharmacological research.

Keywords

SGLT GLUT Glucose transporters Anti-diabetic agents Anti-cancer agents 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

Archana M. Navale declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Archana N. Paranjape declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Asano T, Katagiri H, Takata K, Lin JL, Ishihara H, Inukai K et al (1991) The role of N-glycosylation of GLUT1 for glucose transport activity. J Biol Chem 266:24632–24636Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee SK, McGaffin KR, Pastor-Soler NM, Ahmad F (2009) SGLT1 is a novel cardiac glucose transporter that is perturbed in disease states. Cardiovasc Res 84:111–118PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryant NJ, Govers R, James DE (2002) Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:267–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan KK, Chan JY, Chung KK, Fung KP (2004) Inhibition of cell proliferation in human breast tumor cells by antisense oligonucleotides against facilitative glucose transporter 5. J Cell Biochem 93:1134–1142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. De Vos A, Heimberg H, Quartier E, Huypens P, Bouwens L, Pipeleers D et al (1995) Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression. J Clin Invest 96:2489–2495PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Douard V, Ferraris RP (2008) Regulation of the fructose transporter GLUT5 in health and disease. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E227–E237PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dyer J, Wood IS, Palejwala A, Ellis A, Shirazi-Beechey SP (2002) Expression of monosaccharide transporters in intestine of diabetic humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282:G241–G248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Efrat S, Leiser M, Wu YJ, Fusco-DeMane D, Emran OA, Surana M et al (1994) Ribozyme mediated attenuation of pancreatic β-cell glucokinase expression in transgenic mice results in impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:2051–2055PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Garvey WT, Maianu L, Zhu JH, Brechtel-Hook G, Wallace P, Baron AD (1998) Evidence for defects in the trafficking and translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters in skeletal muscle as a cause of human insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 101:2377–2386PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Godoy A, Ulloa V, Rodríguez F, Reinicke K, Yañez AJ, García M et al (2006) Differential subcellular distribution of glucose transporters GLUT1–6 and GLUT9 in human cancer: Ultrastructural localization of GLUT1 and GLUT5 in breast tumor tissues. J Cell Physiol 207:614–627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Isselbacher KJ (1972) Sugar and amino acid transport by cells in culture—differences between normal and malignant cells. N Engl J Med 286:929–933CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Keembiyehetty C, Augustin R, Carayannopoulos MO, Steer S, Manolescu A, Cheeseman CI et al (2006) Mouse glucose transporter 9 splice variants are expressed in adult liver and kidney and are up-regulated in diabetes. Mol Endocrinol 20:686–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lazaridis KN, Pham L, Vroman B, De Groen PC, LaRusso NF (1997) Kinetic and molecular identification of sodium-dependent glucose transporter in normal rat cholangiocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 272:G1168–G1174Google Scholar
  14. Li Q, Manolescu A, Ritzel M, Yao S, Slugoski M, Young JD et al (2004) Cloning and functional characterization of the human GLUT7 isoform SLC2A7 from the small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287:G236–G242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin WH, Chuang LM, Chen CH, Yeh JI, Hsieh PS, Cheng CH et al (2006) Association study of genetic polymorphisms of SLC2A10 gene and type 2 diabetes in the Taiwanese population. Diabetologia 49:1214–1221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lisinski I, Schurmann A, Joost HG, Cushman SW, Al-Hasani H (2001) Targeting of GLUT6 (formerly GLUT9) and GLUT8 in rat adipose cells. Biochem J 358:517–522PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McBrayer SK, Cheng JC, Singhal S, Krett NL, Rosen ST, Shanmugam M (2012) Multiple myeloma exhibits novel dependence on GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT11: implications for glucose transporter-directed therapy. Blood 119:4686–4697PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mitani T, Hoshikawa H, Mori T, Hosokawa T, Tsukamoto I, Yamaguchi F et al (2009) Growth inhibition of head and neck carcinomas by D‐allose. Head Neck 31:1049–1055CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Palazzo M, Gariboldi S, Zanobbio L, Selleri S, Dusio GF, Mauro V et al (2008) Sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 as a novel immunological player in the intestinal mucosa. J Immunol 181:3126–3136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Phay JE, Hussain HB, Moley JF (2000) Strategy for identification of novel glucose transporter family members by using internet-based genomic databases. Surgery 128:946–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sabino-Silva R, Freitas HS, Lamers ML, Okamoto MM, Santos MF, Machado UF (2009) Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 protein in salivary glands: potential involvement in the diabetes-induced decrease in salivary flow. J Membr Biol 228:63–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sasaki T, Minoshima S, Shiohama A, Shintani A, Shimizu A, Asakawa S et al (2001) Molecular cloning of a member of the facilitative glucose transporter gene family GLUT11 (SLC2A11) and identification of transcription variants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289:1218–1224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Scheepers A, Schmidt S, Manolescu A, Cheeseman CI, Bell A, Zahn C et al (2005) Characterization of the human SLC2A11 (GLUT11) gene: alternative promoter usage, function, expression, and subcellular distribution of three isoforms, and lack of mouse orthologue. Mol Membr Biol 22:339–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Schmidt S, Joost HG, Schurmann A (2009) GLUT8, the enigmatic intracellular hexose transporter. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E614–E618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Shin BC, McKnight RA, Devaskar SU (2004) Glucose transporter GLUT8 translocation in neurons is not insulin responsive. J Neurosci Res 75:835–844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Stuart CA, Howell ME, Zhang Y, Yin D (2009) Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 12 parallels that of GLUT4 in normal muscle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3535–3542PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Uldry M, Thorens B (2004) The SLC2 family of facilitated hexose and polyol transporters. Pflügers Archiv 447:480–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Waller AP, George M, Kalyanasundaram A, Kang C, Periasamy M, Hu K et al (2013) GLUT12 functions as a basal and insulin-independent glucose transporter in the heart. BBA-Mol Basis Dis 1832:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of PharmacyParul UniversityWaghodia Taluka, Vadodara DistrictIndia
  2. 2.Edutech Learning Solutions Pvt. Ltd.VadodaraIndia

Personalised recommendations