A change of heart: oxidative stress in governing muscle function?
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- Breitkreuz, M. & Hamdani, N. Biophys Rev (2015) 7: 321. doi:10.1007/s12551-015-0175-5
Redox/cysteine modification of proteins that regulate calcium cycling can affect contraction in striated muscles. Understanding the nature of these modifications would present the possibility of enhancing cardiac function through reversible cysteine modification of proteins, with potential therapeutic value in heart failure with diastolic dysfunction. Both heart failure and muscular dystrophy are characterized by abnormal redox balance and nitrosative stress. Recent evidence supports the synergistic role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, in concert with endothelial dysfunction and impaired nitric oxide–cyclic guanosine monophosphate–protein kinase G signalling via modification of the giant protein titin. Although antioxidant therapeutics in heart failure with diastolic dysfunction have no marked beneficial effects on the outcome of patients, it, however, remains critical to the understanding of the complex interactions of oxidative/nitrosative stress with pro-inflammatory mechanisms, metabolic dysfunction, and the redox modification of proteins characteristic of heart failure. These may highlight novel approaches to therapeutic strategies for heart failure with diastolic dysfunction. In this review, we provide an overview of oxidative stress and its effects on pathophysiological pathways. We describe the molecular mechanisms driving oxidative modification of proteins and subsequent effects on contractile function, and, finally, we discuss potential therapeutic opportunities for heart failure with diastolic dysfunction.