Frequency and levels of mycotoxins in beer from the Mexican market and exposure estimate for deoxynivalenol mycotoxins

  • Hiram A. Wall-Martínez
  • Xenia Pascari
  • Antonio J. Ramos
  • Sonia Marín
  • Vicente SanchisEmail author
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 23 mycotoxins in beer purchased in Mexico and to assess two exposure scenarios in the Mexican population through beer consumption. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of a total of 61 different beers (132 samples) was carried out using UHPLC-MS/MS equipment. Probability density functions were used to describe mycotoxins contamination. The daily intake of mycotoxins was estimated using a semi-probabilistic approach, applying the Monte Carlo method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON)) were the mycotoxins found in higher proportions in contaminated samples. None of the other mycotoxins overpassed the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method. The combined intake of DON and its analogues ranged from 5.24 to 86.59 ng kg−1 bw day−1, which represent from 1.20 to 19.83% of the DON TDI. The results suggest that depending on the individual consumption of beer and depending on the type of beer, the intake of DON via beer could represent a significant percentage of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).


Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol Beer Occurrence and estimated daily intake 


Funding information

This work received financial support from the University of Lleida (grant JADE Plus 218/2016), the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Competitiveness (MINECO, Project AGL2014-55379-P) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) by the scholarship assigned to Wall-Martínez HA.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

12550_2019_347_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNIDA-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering DepartmentTecnológico Nacional de México/I.T. VeracruzVeracruzMexico
  2. 2.Applied Mycology Unit, Food Technology DepartmentUniversity of LleidaLleidaSpain

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