Advertisement

Frequency and levels of mycotoxins in beer from the Mexican market and exposure estimate for deoxynivalenol mycotoxins

  • Hiram A. Wall-Martínez
  • Xenia Pascari
  • Antonio J. Ramos
  • Sonia Marín
  • Vicente SanchisEmail author
Original Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 23 mycotoxins in beer purchased in Mexico and to assess two exposure scenarios in the Mexican population through beer consumption. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of a total of 61 different beers (132 samples) was carried out using UHPLC-MS/MS equipment. Probability density functions were used to describe mycotoxins contamination. The daily intake of mycotoxins was estimated using a semi-probabilistic approach, applying the Monte Carlo method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON)) were the mycotoxins found in higher proportions in contaminated samples. None of the other mycotoxins overpassed the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method. The combined intake of DON and its analogues ranged from 5.24 to 86.59 ng kg−1 bw day−1, which represent from 1.20 to 19.83% of the DON TDI. The results suggest that depending on the individual consumption of beer and depending on the type of beer, the intake of DON via beer could represent a significant percentage of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).

Keywords

Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol Beer Occurrence and estimated daily intake 

Notes

Funding information

This work received financial support from the University of Lleida (grant JADE Plus 218/2016), the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Competitiveness (MINECO, Project AGL2014-55379-P) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) by the scholarship assigned to Wall-Martínez HA.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

12550_2019_347_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. Arcella D, Eskola M, Ruiz JAG (2016) Dietary exposure assessment to Alternaria toxins in the European population. EFSA J 14:4654.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4654 Google Scholar
  2. Bauer JI, Gross M, Gottschalk C, Usleber E (2016) Investigations on the occurrence of mycotoxins in beer. Food Control 63:135–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertuzzi T, Rastelli S, Mulazzi A, Donadini G, Pietri A (2011) Mycotoxin occurrence in beer produced in several European countries. Food Control 22:2059–2064.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brugger EM, Wagner J, Schumacher DM, Koch K, Podlech J, Metzler M, Lehmann L (2006) Mutagenicity of the mycotoxin alternariol in cultured mammalian cells. Toxicol Lett 164(3):221–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2006.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bryła M, Ksieniewicz-Woźniak E, Waśkiewicz A, Szymczyk K, Jędrzejczak R (2018) Co-occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in beer samples. Food Control 92:319–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cámara Nacional de la Industria del Vestido (CANAIVE) (2012) ¿Cuánto mide México? El tamaño sí importa. Cámara Nacional de la Industria del vestido. [How much does Mexico measure? size does matter]. Accessed 2018 June 13. México. www.canaive.com
  7. Castillo-Urueta P, Carvajal M, Méndez I, Meza F. Gálvez A (2011) Survey of aflatoxins in maize tortillas from Mexico City. Food Addit Contam Part B 4:42–51. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2010.533390
  8. Euromonitor International Beer in México, (2014) London. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport database. Accessed 2018 Feb 11. http://www.euromonitor.com/beer
  9. European Commission (2002) Commission Regulation (EC) 2002/657 of 12 of August 2002, concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of the results. Off J Eur Commun, L221eL232. Available from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/ed928116-a955-4a84-b10a-cf7a82bad858/language-en. Accessed on 08/03/19
  10. European Commission (2006a) Commission Regulation (EC) 401/2006 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Off J EU L70:12–34 Available from: https://fsvps.ru/fsvps-docs/ru/usefulinf/files/es401-2006.pdf. Accessed on 08/03/19
  11. European Commission (2006b) Commission regulation (EC) no 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Communitites L364:5–24.  https://doi.org/10.2203/dose-response.06-012.Hanekamp Google Scholar
  12. European Commission (2013) Commission recommendation (EC) 2013/165 commission recommendation of March 27, 2013 on the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in cereal and cereal products (2013/165/EU). Off J EU L91:12–11 Available from: http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/eur122396.pdf Google Scholar
  13. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2010a) Management of left-censored data in dietary exposure assessment of chemical substances. EFSA J 8:1–96.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1557 Google Scholar
  14. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2010b) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain related. Statement on recent scientific information on the toxicity of ochratoxin A. EFSA, Parma.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1626 Google Scholar
  15. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2011a) Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in food and feed. EFSA J 9:1–187.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.248 Google Scholar
  16. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2011b) Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of zearalenone in food. EFSA J 9:1–124.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2197 Google Scholar
  17. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2013) Request for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of deoxynivalenol, metabolites of deoxynivalenol and masked deoxynivalenol in food and feed. http://registerofquestions.efsa.europa.eu. Accessed on 08/03/19
  18. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014) Scientific opinion on the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of modified forms of certain mycotoxins in food and feed. EFSA J 12:1–61.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3916 Google Scholar
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (2006) The use of microbiological risk assessment outputs to develop practical risk management strategies: metrics to improve food safety. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Meeting in collaboration with the German Federal Ministry of Food. Kiel, Germany. Accessed 2018 June 13. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/MRA_Outputs.pdf
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (2014) Global alcohol reports: Mexico. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO [Accessed 2018 June 14 http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/profiles/mex.pdf
  21. Gimeno A, Martins M (2003) Micotoxinas y micotoxicosis en animales y humanos. Talleres gráficos del SRL, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  22. Gonzalez-Osnaya L, Farres A (2011) Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in Fusarium-contaminated wheat in Mexico City. Food Addit Contam Part B 4:71–78.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2011.551944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guzmán-de-Peña D, Peña-Cabriales JJ (2005) Regulatory considerations of aflatoxin contamination of food in Mexico. Rev Latinoam Microbiol 47:160–164Google Scholar
  24. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) (2017) Estadísticas a propósito de la actividad de elaboración de la cerveza [Statistics on the activity of brewing]. México. [Accessed 2018 [junio 01]. http://cervecerosdemexico.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/estadisticas-a-proposito-de-la-elaboracion-de-la-cerveza.pdf
  25. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1993) Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, vol 56. IARC, World Health Organization, Lyon, France, pp 245–395Google Scholar
  26. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2002) Aflatoxins monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol 82. IARC, World Health Organization, Lyon, France, pp 171–300Google Scholar
  27. IUPAC, prepared by Currie L (1995) Commission or analytical nomenclature, recommendations in evaluation of analytical methods including detection and quantification capabilities. Pure Appl Chem 67:1699–1723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(99)00104-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ji X, Yang H, Wang J, Li R, Zhao H, Xu J, Xiao Y, Tang B, Qian M (2018) Occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereal-based food products marketed through e-commerce stores and an assessment of dietary exposure of Chinese consumers to DON. Food Control 92:391–398.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives (JECFA) (2010) Summary and conclusions. In: Seventy-second meeting, Rome, 16–25 February 2010. FAO/WHO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  30. Kantar Worldpanel México (2015) México 2° lugar en consumo de cerveza en Latinoamérica. [Mexico 2nd place in beer consumption in Latin America] [Accessed 2018 June 01]. https://www.kantarworldpanel.com/mx/Noticias-/Mexico-2-lugar-en-consumo-de-Cerveza-en-Latinoamerica
  31. Karlovsky P, Suman M, Berthiller F, Meester J, Eisenbrand G, Perrin I, Oswald IP, Speijers G, Chiodini A, Recker T, Dussor P (2016) Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination. Mycotox Res 32:179–205.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-016-0257-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kirin Holding Company (2016) Global Beer Consumption by Country in 2015. Accessed 2018 June 01. https://www.kirinholdings.co.jp/english/news/2017/1221_01.html
  33. Kostelanska M, Zachariasova M, Lacina O, et al (2011) The study of deoxynivalenol and its masked metabolites fate during the brewing process realised by UPLC-TOFMS method. Food Chem 126:1870–1876.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.008
  34. Kuzdraliński A, Solarska E, Muszyńska M (2013) Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone occurrence in beers analysed by an enzyme-linked im munosorbent assay method. Food Control 29:22–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.06.003
  35. Lancova K, Hajslova J, Poustka J, Krplova A, Zachariasova M, Dostalek P, Sachambula L (2008) Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and “masked” deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer. Food Addit Contam - Part A 25:732–744.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701779625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Landau D, Binder K (2015) A guide to Monte Carlo simulations in statistical physics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. Martínez-Flores R, García-Aguirre G, Melgarejo-Hernández (2003) Inspección de aflatoxinas en maíz cultivado, almacenado y transportado en el estado de Tamaulipas, México en 1988. [Inspection of aflatoxins in corn grown, stored and transported in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico in 1988] Instituto de Biología, UNAM, serie Botánica 74:313–321. Available from: http://www.ejournal.unam.mx/bot/072-02/BOT72205.pdf.​ ​Accessed on 08/03/19
  38. Mendoza JR, Kok CR, Stratton J, Bianchini A, Hallen-Adams HE (2017) Understanding the mycobiota of maize from the highlands of Guatemala, and implications for maize quality and safety. Crop Prot 101:5–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2017.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Molto G, Samar M, Resnik S, Martínez EJ, Pacin A (2000) Occurrence of trichothecenes in Argentinean beer: a preliminary exposure assessment. Food Addit Contam 17:809–813.  https://doi.org/10.1080/026520300415363 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Monbaliu S, Van Poucke C, Van Peteghem C, Van Poucke K, Heungens K, De Saeger S (2009) Development of a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for sweet pepper analysis. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom 21:3-11. doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3833
  41. Müller MEH, Korn U (2013) Alternaria mycotoxins in wheat—a 10 years survey in the Northeast of Germany. Food Control 34:191–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Norma Oficial Mexicana (2002) NOM-187-SSA1/SCFI-2002: Productos y servicios. Masa, tortillas, tostadas y harinas preparadas para su elaboración y establecimientos donde se procesan. Especificaciones sanitarias. Available from: http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/187ssa1scfi02.html. Accessed on 08/03/19
  43. Norma Oficial Mexicana (2008) NOM-247-SSA1–2008: Productos y servicios. Cereales y sus productos. Cereales, harinas de cereales, sémolas o semolinas. Alimentos a base de: cereales, semillas comestibles, de harinas, sémolas o semolinas o sus mezclas. Productos de panificación. Disposiciones y especificaciones sanitarias y nutrimentales. Métodos de prueba. Available from: http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5100356&fecha=27/07/2009. Accessed on 08/03/19
  44. Norma Oficial Mexicana (2010) NOM-243-SSA1–2010: Productos y servicios. Leche, fórmula láctea, producto lácteo combinado y derivados lácteos. Disposiciones y especificaciones sanitarias. Métodos de prueba. Available from: http://dof.gob.mx/normasOficiales/4156/salud2a/salud2a.htm. Accessed on 08/03/19
  45. Papadopoulou-Bouraoui A, Vrabcheva T, Valzacchi S, Stroka J, Anklam E (2004) Screening survey of deoxynivalenol in beer from the European market by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Food Addit Contam 21:607–617.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030410001677745 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pascari X, Ortiz-Solá J, Marín S, Ramos AJ, Sanchis V (2018a) Survey of mycotoxins in beer and exposure assessment through the consumption of commercially available beer in Lleida, Spain. LWT Food Sci Technol 92:87–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pascari X, Ramos AJ, Marín S, Sanchis V (2018b) Mycotoxins and beer. Impact of beer production process on mycotoxin contamination. A review. Food Res Int 103:121–129.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.07.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Peters J, Van Dam R, Van Doorn R, Katerere D, Berthiller F, Haasnoot W, Nielen MWF (2017) Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer. PLoS One 12:1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185887 Google Scholar
  49. Pfeiffer E, Eschbach S, Metzler M (2007) Alternaria toxins: DNA strand-breaking activity in mammalian cells in vitro. Mycotoxin Res 23(3):152–157.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02951512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piacentini KC, Rocha LO, Fontes LC, Carnielli L, Reis TA, Corrêa B (2017) Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: the influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality. Food Chem 218:64–69.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.09.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reyes-Velázquez WP, Isaías-Espinoza VH, Rojo F, Jiménez-Plascencia C, de Lucas-Palacios E, Hernández-Góbora J, Ramírez-Álvarez A (2008) Occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in corn silage, Jalisco State, México. Rev Iberoam Micol 25:182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Robledo M, Marín S, Ramos AJ (2001) Contaminación natural con micotoxinas en maíz forrajero y granos de café verde en el Estado de Nayarit (México) [Natural contamination with mycotoxins in fodder corn and green coffee beans in the State of Nayarit (Mexico)]. Rev Iberoam Micol 18:141–144Google Scholar
  53. Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Fattore M, Albrizio S, Berrada H, Mañes J (2015) Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population. Food Chem 178:149–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Samar MM, Neira MS, Resnik SL, Pacin A (2001) Effect of fermentation on naturally occurring deoxynivalenol (DON) in Argentinean bread processing technology. Food Addit Contam 18:1004–1010.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030110051284 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Savi GD, Piacentini KC, Tibola CS, Santos K, Maria GS, Scussel VM (2016) Deoxynivalenol in the wheat milling process and wheat-based products and daily intake estimates for the Southern Brazilian population. Food Control 62:231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.10.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schrader TJ, Cherry W, Soper K, Langlois I, Vijay HM (2001) Examination of Alternaria alternata mutagenicity and effects of nitrosylation using the Ames Salmonella test. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 21(4):261–274.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tcm.1014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) (2000) Opinion of the scientific committee on food on Fusarium toxins. Part 2: Zearalenone (ZEA). Available from https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/cs_contaminants_catalogue_out65_en.pdf. Accessed on 08/03/19
  58. Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) (2003) Updated opinion of the scientific committee on food on fumonisin B1, B2 and B3. European Commission, Health and consumer protection directorate-general, document number SCF/CS/CNTM/MYC/28 Final of 4 April 2003. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/cs_contaminants_catalogue_fusarium_out185_en.pdf. Accessed on 08/03/19
  59. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) (2002) Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Fusarium toxins. Part 6: group evaluation of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol. Scientific Committee on Food SCF/CS/CNTM/ MYC/27 Final. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out123_en.pdf. Accessed on 08/03/19
  60. Secretaría de Economía (SE) (2015) Industria de la Cerveza en México [Beer industry in Mexico]. Subsecretaría de Industria y Comercio. Catálogo de Publicaciones de la Administración General del Estado: http://publicacionesociales.boe.es/NIPO:280-16-007-6 Deposito legal: M-25254-2016
  61. Shetty PH, Jespersen L (2006) Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria as potential mycotoxin decontaminating agents. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:48–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tangni EK, Ponchaut S, Maudoux M, Rozenberg R, Larondelle Y (2002) Ochratoxin A in domestic and imported beers in Belgium: occurrence and exposure assessment. Food Add Contam 12:1169–1179.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030210007859 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Torres MR, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ (1998) Occurrence of fumonisins in Spanish beers analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Int J Microbiol 39:139–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(97)00113-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tralamazza SM, Piacentini KC, Iwase CHT, Rocha L de O (2018) Toxigenic Alternaria species: impact in cereals worldwide. Curr Opin Food Sci 23:57–63. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.COFS.2018.05.002
  65. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1997) Exposure factors handbook. US EPA/600/P-95/002Fb, Volume II, Food ingestion factors, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/risk/risk-assessment-guidelines. Accessed on 08/03/19
  66. Unites States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2015) Mycotoxin handbook. Grain Inspection Packers and Stockyards Administration, Washington, D.C. https://www.gipsa.usda.gov/fgis/handbook/MycotoxinHB/MycotoxinHandbook_2016-07-12.pdf. Accessed on 08/03/19
  67. Zain ME (2011) Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. J Saudi Chem Soc 15:129–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNIDA-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering DepartmentTecnológico Nacional de México/I.T. VeracruzVeracruzMexico
  2. 2.Applied Mycology Unit, Food Technology DepartmentUniversity of LleidaLleidaSpain

Personalised recommendations