Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 65–73 | Cite as

Co-occurrence of mycotoxins in maize food and maize-based feed from small-scale farms in Brazil: a pilot study

  • Larissa T. Franco
  • Tânia Petta
  • George E. Rottinghaus
  • Keliani Bordin
  • Gilmar A. Gomes
  • Carlos A. F. OliveiraEmail author
Original Article


A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize meal and maize flour for human consumption available in the farm households, and maize-based feed intended for broiler chicks, laying hens, and dairy cows. Analyses of mycotoxins were performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The median levels of mycotoxins found in maize food were 2.5 μg/kg (total AF), 120 μg/kg (total FB), 13 μg/kg (ZEN), and 57 μg/kg (DON). All values were below the Brazilian tolerance limits, except for total FB in one sample of maize flour. In feed samples, median levels of total AF, total FB, ZEN, and DON were 100 μg/kg, 680 μg/kg, 160 μg/kg, and 200 μg/kg, respectively. The co-occurrence of two or more mycotoxins was confirmed in 35% and 51% of maize food and feed, respectively. Results indicate a low human exposure to mycotoxins in the small-scale farms evaluated and a higher exposure of farm animals to mycotoxins in the feed.


Mycotoxins Aflatoxins Ochratoxin A Fusariotoxins Occurrence Maize Feed 


Funding information

The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), grant no. 400649/2014-4, for financial support and fellowships. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Animal Science and Food EngineeringUniversity of São PauloPirassunungaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine at Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Polytechnic SchoolPontifices University of ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Food EngineeringState University of Santa CatarinaPinhalzinhoBrazil

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