Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Astragalus propinquus root and its transfer to decoction
- 75 Downloads
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey assessing (a) the ochratoxin A (OTA) content in different samples of Astragalus propinquus root (AR), one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and (b) the rate of OTA transfer to AR decoctions that are traditionally used to reduce general weakness and increase overall vitality. A validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine OTA concentrations in AR samples and AR decoctions. The limit of quantification was 0.35 ng/g; the recovery of the HPLC method for AR samples was 82%; and the relative standard deviation (SD) of repeatability was 2.6%. All 40 tested AR samples were positive, with a mean value of 451.0 ng/g (range, 28.8–1700.0 ng/g). The transfer rate of OTA to decoctions, from a naturally contaminated and homogenized AR sample (internal reference material) with a concentration of OTA of 288.9 ng/g ± 12.3 (SD), was 83.4% ± 8.5 (SD). We believe it is necessary to continue OTA monitoring in AR and other herbal products, estimate the actual human usual intake, and perform health risk assessment.
KeywordsAstragalus propinquus Schischkin Herbal food supplement Herbal products HPLC-FLD Ochratoxin A Traditional Chinese medicine
This study received a financial support from the specific research project (No. 2113/2016) of Faculty of Science, University Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic, and from the project of Ministry of Health, Czech Republic conceptual development of research organization (“National Institute of Public Health – NIPH, IN 75010330”).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.
- Aldarmaa J, Liu Z, Long J, Mo X, Ma J, Liu J (2010) Anti-convulsant effect and mechanism of Astragalus mongholicus extract in vitro and in vivo: protection against oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Neurochem Res 35(1):33–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-009-0027-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bone K., Mills S. (2013) Principles and practice of phytotherapy (2nd ed.). Edinborough: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. 381–389. doi: http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/B978-0-443-06992-5.00001-3
- Chan JYW, Lam FC, Leung PC, Che CT, Fung KP (2009) Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of a herbal formulation of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Phytother Res 23(5):658–665. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2694 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang YX, Sun YG, Li J, Zhang QH, Guo XR, Zhang BL, Jin H, Gao XM (2012) The experimental study of Astragalus membranaceus on meridian tropsim: the distribution study of astragaloside IV in rat tissues. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 911:71–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.10.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (2010) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China 2010. Set of 3, Chinese Edition, China Medical Science and Technology Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Choi HS, Joo SJ, Yoon HS, Kim KS, Song IG, Min KB (2007) Quality characteristic of hwangki (Astragalus membranaceus) chungkukjang during fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Preservation 14(4):356–363Google Scholar
- Creppy EE, Castegnaro M, Grosse Y, Meriaux J, Manier C, Moncharmont P, Waller C (1993) Etude de l’ochratoxicose humaine dans trois regions de France. Alsace, Aquitaine et Region Rhone-Alpes. In: Creppy EE, Castegnaro M, Dirheimer G (eds) Human Ochratoxicosis and Its Pathologies. John Libbey Eurotext, Montrouge, 1993, pp 147–158Google Scholar
- EU (2006) Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs (Text with EEA relevance). Off J Eur Union L364:5–24Google Scholar
- IARC (1993) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some naturally occuring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. Vol. 56. France: IARC, Lyon, pp 489–524Google Scholar
- Kemper KJ, Small R (1999) Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceous) Longwood Herbal Task Force and The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research. 1–18. http://www.longwoodherbal.org/willowbark/willow.cis.pdf
- Ma J, Qiao Z, Xiang X, Qiao Z, Xiang X (2011) Aqueous extract of Astragalus mongholicus ameliorates high cholesterol diet induced oxidative injury in experimental rat models. J Med Plant Res 5(5):855–858Google Scholar
- Rios LJ, Waterman PG (1997) A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of Astragalus. Phytother Res 11:411–418. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199709)11:6<411::AID-PTR132>3.0.CO;2-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Samson RA, Pitt JI (2000) Integration of modern taxonomic methods for Penicillium and Aspergillus classification. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 1–524Google Scholar
- Verotta L, El-Sebakhy N (2001) Cycloartane and oleanane saponins from Astragalus sp. In: Studies in natural products chemistry (Bioactive Natural Products, Part F). Elsevier Science, Karachi, pp 179–234Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) WHO traditional medicine strategy 2014–2023. WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerli B, Dick R (1995) Determination of Ochratoxin A at the ppt level in human blood, serum, milk and some foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography with enhanced fluorescence detection and immunoaffinity column cleanup: methodology and Swiss data. J. Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 666:85–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar