Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 237–246 | Cite as

Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in conventional and organic milk offered for sale in Italy

  • Sara Armorini
  • Alberto Altafini
  • Anna Zaghini
  • Paola RoncadaEmail author
Original Article


In the present study, 58 samples of milk were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were purchased during the period April–May 2013 in a random manner from local stores (supermarkets, small retail shops, small groceries, and specialized suppliers) located in the surrounding of Bologna (Italy). The commercial samples of milk were either organic (n = 22) or conventional (n = 36); fresh milk samples and UHT milk samples, whole milk samples, and partially skim milk samples were present in both the two considered categories. For the quantification of AFM1 in milk, the extraction-purification technique based on the use of immunoaffinity columns was adopted and analyses were performed using HPLC-FD. AFM1 was detected in 35 samples, 11 from organic production and 24 from conventional production. No statistically (P > 0.05) significant differences were observed in the concentration of AFM1 in the two categories of product. The levels of contamination found in the positive samples ranged between 0.009 and 0.026 ng mL−1. No sample exceeded the limit defined at community level for AFM1 in milk (0.05 μg kg−1). This demonstrates the effectiveness of the checks before the placing on the market of these food products. Thus, the “aflatoxins” problem that characterized the summer of 2012 does not seem to have had effect on the contamination level of the considered milk samples.


Aflatoxin M1 Conventional milk Organic milk HPLC-FD Immunoaffinity columns 


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Armorini
    • 1
  • Alberto Altafini
    • 1
  • Anna Zaghini
    • 1
  • Paola Roncada
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine - Alma Mater StudiorumUniversity of BolognaOzzano EmiliaItaly

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