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Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 99–116 | Cite as

The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs

  • Bich Van Le Thanh
  • Michel Lemay
  • Alexandre Bastien
  • Jérôme Lapointe
  • Martin Lessard
  • Younès Chorfi
  • Frédéric GuayEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The “mycotoxin” effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs and combination of antioxidant feed additives restored partially the oxidative status. Further studies will be necessary to assess whether the effects of antioxidant feed additives on oxidative status are specific when feed is contaminated with DON-ZEN.

Keywords

Piglets Deoxynivalenol Antioxidant Oxidative stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the team at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Université Laval (Quebec, Canada). These individuals helped run the experiments and analyze the data. The authors also wish to thank G. Beauchamp for help with the statistical analyses.

Compliance with ethical standards

Animal care procedures followed the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 2009), and the experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Use and Care Committee of Laval University.

Conflict of interest

None. The authors of this manuscript has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the manuscript.

Source of funding

The study was funded by « Ministère de l’agriculture, des pêcheries et de l’alimentation du Québec » on Innovation research program.

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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bich Van Le Thanh
    • 1
  • Michel Lemay
    • 1
  • Alexandre Bastien
    • 1
  • Jérôme Lapointe
    • 2
  • Martin Lessard
    • 2
  • Younès Chorfi
    • 3
  • Frédéric Guay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  2. 2.Sherbrooke Research and Development CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)SherbrookeCanada
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary BiomedicineUniversité de MontréalSaint HyacintheCanada

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