Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 99–116 | Cite as

The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs

  • Bich Van Le Thanh
  • Michel Lemay
  • Alexandre Bastien
  • Jérôme Lapointe
  • Martin Lessard
  • Younès Chorfi
  • Frédéric GuayEmail author
Original Article


Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The “mycotoxin” effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs and combination of antioxidant feed additives restored partially the oxidative status. Further studies will be necessary to assess whether the effects of antioxidant feed additives on oxidative status are specific when feed is contaminated with DON-ZEN.


Piglets Deoxynivalenol Antioxidant Oxidative stress 



We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the team at the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Université Laval (Quebec, Canada). These individuals helped run the experiments and analyze the data. The authors also wish to thank G. Beauchamp for help with the statistical analyses.

Compliance with ethical standards

Animal care procedures followed the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC 2009), and the experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Use and Care Committee of Laval University.

Conflict of interest

None. The authors of this manuscript has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the manuscript.

Source of funding

The study was funded by « Ministère de l’agriculture, des pêcheries et de l’alimentation du Québec » on Innovation research program.


  1. Abarikwu SO, Pant AB, Farombi EO (2012) The protective effects of quercetin on the cytotoxicity of atrazine on rat Sertoli-germ cell co-culture. Int J Androl 35:590–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alia M, Ramos S, Mateos R, Granado-Serrano AB, Bravo L, Goya L (2006) Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 212:110–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Atroshi F, Rizzo A, Biese I, Lindberg LA, Saloniemi H (1995) Effects of feeding T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol on DNA and GSH contents of brain and spleen of rats supplemented with vitamin E and C and selenium combination. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 74:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atroshi F, Biese I, Saloniemi H, Ali-Vehmas T, Saari S, Rizzo A, Veijalainen P (2000) Significance of apoptosis and its relationship to antioxidants after ochratoxin A administration in mice. J Pharm Pharm Sci 3:281–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergsjo B, Matre T, Nafstad I (1992) Effects of diets with graded levels of deoxynivalenol on performance in growing pigs. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 39:752–758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Betteridge DJ (2000) What is oxidative stress? Metabolism 49:3–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieger J, Cermak R, Blank R, de Boer VC, Hollman PC, Kamphues J, Wolffram S (2008) Tissue distribution of quercetin in pigs after long-term dietary supplementation. J Nutr 138:1417–1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boots AW, Wilms LC, Swennen EL, Kleinjans JC, Bast A, Haenen GR (2008) In vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin in healthy volunteers. Nutrition 24:703–710Google Scholar
  9. Borutova R, Faix S, Placha I, Gresakova L, Cobanova K, Leng L (2008) Effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on oxidative stress and blood phagocytic activity in broilers. Arch Anim Nutr 62:303–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouhet S, Oswald IP (2007) The intestine as a possible target for fumonisin toxicity. Mol Nutr Food Res 51:925–931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bracarense AP, Lucioli J, Grenier B, Drociunas Pacheco G, Moll WD, Schatzmayr G, Oswald IP (2012) Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, alone or in interaction, induces morphological and immunological changes in the intestine of piglets. Br J Nutr 107:1776–1786CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brigelius-Flohe R, Maiorino M (2013) Glutathione peroxidases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3289–3303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Canadian Council of Animal Care (2009) Lignes directrices du CCPA sur: le soin et l’utilisation des animaux de ferme en recherche, en enseignement et dans les tests, a été préparé par le sous-comité spécial sur les animaux de ferme du Comité des lignes directrices du Conseil canadien de protection des animaux (CCPA).
  14. Casteel SW, Rottinghouse GE (2000) Mycotoxicoses. Encycle Microbiol 3:337–348Google Scholar
  15. Ching S, Mahan DC, Wiseman TG, Fastinger ND (2002) Evaluating the antioxidant status of weanling pigs fed dietary vitamins A and E. J Anim Sci 80:2396–2401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Choi KC, Chung WT, Kwon JK, Yu JY, Jang YS, Park SM, Lee SY, Lee JC (2010) Inhibitory effects of quercetin on aflatoxin B1-induced hepatic damage in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 48:2747–2753Google Scholar
  17. Dänicke S, Valenta H, Döll S (2004a) On the toxicokinetics and the metabolism of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the pig. Arch Anim Nutr 58:169–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dänicke S, Valenta H, Döll S, Ganter M, Flachowsky G (2004b) On the effectiveness of a detoxifying agent in preventing fusariotoxicosis in fattening pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 114:141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dänicke S, Valenta H, Klobasa F, Döll S, Ganter M, Flachowsky G (2004c) Effects of graded levels of Fusarium toxin contaminated wheat in diets for fattening pigs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, deoxynivalenol balance and clinical serum characteristics. Arch Anim Nutr 58:1–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dänicke S, Goyarts T, Valenta H (2007) On the specific and unspecific effects of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent on piglets when fed with uncontaminated or with Fusarium toxins contaminated diets. Arch Anim Nutr 61:266–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dänicke S, Brosig B, Klunker LR, Kahlert S, Kluess J, Döll S, Valenta H, Rothkotter HJ (2012) Systemic and local effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) are not alleviated by dietary supplementation of humic substances (HS). Food Chem Toxicol 50:979–988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. D'Mello JPF, Placinta CM, MacDonald AMC (1999) Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity. Anim Feed Sci Technol 80:183–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Döll S, Dänicke S (2004) In vivo detoxification of Fusarium toxins. Arch Anim Nutr 58:419–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Döll S, Gericke S, Dänicke S, Raila J, Ueberschär KH, Valenta H, Schnurrbusch U, Schweigert FJ, Flachowsky G (2005) The efficacy of a modified aluminosilicate as adetoxifying agent in Fusarium toxin contaminated maize containing diets for piglets. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 89:342–358Google Scholar
  25. El-Nekeety AA, Abdel-Azeim SH, Hassan AM, Hassan NS, Aly SE, Abdel-Wahhab MA (2014) Quercetin inhibits the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in liver of rats fed aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Toxic Rep Ser 1:319–329Google Scholar
  26. Erel O (2004) A novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation. Clin Biochem 37:277–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eriksen GS, Pettersson H, Johnsen K, Lindberg JE (2002) Transformation of trichothecenes in ileal digesta and faeces from pigs. Arch Tierernahr 56:263–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Eriksen GS, Pettersson H, Lindberg JE (2003) Absorption, metabolism and excretion of 3-acetyl DON in pigs. Arch Tierernahr 57:335–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ermis B, Yildirim A, Ors R, Tastekin A, Ozkan B, Akcay F (2005) Influence of smoking on serum and milk malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and antioxidant potential levels in mothers at the postpartum seventh day. Biol Trace Elem Res 105:27–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frankic T, Pajk T, Rezar V, Levart A, Salobir J (2006) The role of dietary nucleotides in reduction of DNA damage induced by T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in chicken leukocytes. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1838–1844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frankic T, Salobir J, Rezar V (2008) The effect of vitamin E supplementation on reduction of lymphocyte DNA damage induced by T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in weaned pig. Anim Feed Sci Technol 141:274–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Granado-Serrano AB, Martin MA, Bravo L, Goya L, Ramos S (2012) Quercetin modulates Nrf2 and glutathione-related defenses in HepG2 cells: Involvement of p38. Chem Biol Interact 195:154–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gutteridge JM (1995) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage. Clin Chem 41:1819–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Halliwell B (1994) Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet 344:721–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Janes W, Schuster M (2001) Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in blood, bile, urine and excrement samples from swine using immunoaffinity chromatography and LC-UV-detection. Mycotoxin Res 17:88–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jensen SK, Engberg RM, Hedemann MS (1999) All-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate is a better vitamin E source than all-rac-alpha-tocopherol succinate for broilers. J Nutr 129:1355–1360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiang SZ, Yang ZB, Yang WR, Yao BQ, Zhao H, Liu FX, Chen CC, Chi F (2010) Effects of feeding purified zearalenone contaminated diets with or without clay enterosorbent on growth, nutrient availability, and genital organs in post-weaning female pigs. Asian Australas. J Anim Sci 23:74–81Google Scholar
  38. Jiang SZ, Yang ZB, Yang WR, Gao J, Liu FX, Broomhead J, Chi F (2011) Effects of purified zearalenone on growth performance, organ size, serum metabolites, and oxidative stress in postweaning gilts. J Anim Sci 89:3008–3015CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kanora A, Maes D (2009) The role of mycotoxins in pig reproduction: a review. Vet Med 54:565–576Google Scholar
  40. Karlovsky P (2011) Biological detoxification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its use in genetically engineered crops and feed additives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:491–504CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Kouadio JH, Mobio TA, Baudrimont I, Moukha S, Dano SD, Creppy EE (2005) Comparative study of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or fumonisin B1 in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Toxicology 213:56–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lauridsen C, Jensen SK (2005) Influence of supplementation of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate preweaning and vitamin C postweaning on alpha-tocopherol and immune responses of piglets. J Anim Sci 83:1274–1286Google Scholar
  43. Lessard M, Savard C, Deschene K, Lauzon K, Pinilla VA, Gagnon CA, Lapointe J, Guay F, Chorfi Y (2015) Impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated feed on intestinal integrity and immune response in swine. Food Chem Toxicol 80:7–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Li E, Tso P (2003) Vitamin A uptake from foods. Curr Opin Lipidol 14:241–247Google Scholar
  45. Li D, Ye Y, Lin S, Deng L, Fan X, Zhang Y, Deng X, Li Y, Yan H, Ma Y (2014) Evaluation of deoxynivalenol-induced toxic effects on DF-1 cells in vitro: cell-cycle arrest, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 37:141–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu M, Gao R, Meng Q, Zhang Y, Bi C, Shan A (2014) Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, immunological and morphological changes in rats. PLoS One 9, e106412CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Lyan B, Azais-Braesco V, Cardinault N, Tyssandier V, Borel P, Alexandre-Gouabau MC, Grolier P (2001) Simple method for clinical determination of 13 carotenoids in human plasma using an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 751:297–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Madson DM, Ensley SM, Patience JF, Gauger PC, Main RG (2014) Diagnostic assessment and lesion evaluation of chronic deoxynivalenol ingestion in growing swine. J Swine Health Prod 22:78–83Google Scholar
  49. Mahan DC, Cline TR, Richert B (1999) Effects of dietary levels of selenium-enriched yeast and sodium selenite as selenium sources fed to growing-finishing pigs on performance, tissue selenium, serum glutathione peroxidase activity, carcass characteristics, and loin quality. J Anim Sci 77:2172–2179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mahan DC, Azain M, Crenshaw TD, Cromwell GL, Dove CR, Kim SW, Lindemann MD, Miller PS, Pettigrew JE, Stein HH, van Heugten E (2014) Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine. J Anim Sci 92:4991–4997CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Marin DE, Pistol GC, Neagoe IV, Calin L, Taranu I (2013) Effects of zearalenone on oxidative stress and inflammation in weanling piglets. Food Chem Toxicol 58:408–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Maurice D, Lightsey SF, Toler JE, Canty S (2007) Effect of chronic oxidative/corticosterone-induced stress on ascorbic acid metabolism and total antioxidant capacity in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 91:355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mazué F, Delmas D, Murillo G, Saleiro D, Limagne E, Latruffe N (2014) Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis. Food Funct 5:663–670Google Scholar
  54. Mishra S, Dwivedi PD, Pandey HP, Das M (2014) Role of oxidative stress in Deoxynivalenol induced toxicity. Food Chem Toxicol 72:20–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Moldovan GL, Pfander B, Jentsch S (2007) PCNA, the maestro of the replication fork. Cell 129:665–679Google Scholar
  56. Obremski K, Gajecka M, Zielonka L, Jakimiuk E, Gajecki M (2005) Morphology and ultrastructure of small intestine mucosa in gilts with zearalenone mycotoxicosis. Pol J Vet Sci 8:301–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Osselaere A, Santos R, Hautekiet V, De Backer P, Chiers K, Ducatelle R, Croubels S (2013) Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine. PLoS One 8, e69014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Pistol GC, Gras MA, Marin DE, Israel-Roming F, Stancu M, Taranu I (2014) Natural feed contaminant zearalenone decreases the expressions of important pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinase/NF-kB signalling molecules in pigs. Br J Nutr 111:452–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Placha I, Borutova R, Gresakova L, Petrovic V, Faix S, Leng L (2009) Effects of excessive selenium supplementation to diet contaminated with deoxynivalenol on blood phagocytic activity and antioxidative status of broilers. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 93:695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Prelusky DB, Gerdes RG, Underhill KL, Rotter BA, Jui PY, Trenholm HL (1994) Effects of low-level dietary deoxynivalenol on haematological and clinical parameters of the pig. Nat Toxins 2:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rizzo AF, Atroshi F, Ahotupa M, Sankari S, Elovaara E (1994) Protective effect of antioxidants against free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation induced by DON or T-2 toxin. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 41:81–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Rotter BA, Thompson BK, Lessard M, Trenholm HL, Tryphonas H (1994) Influence of low-level exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins on selected immunological and hematological parameters in young swine. Fundam Appl Toxicol 23:117–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ruh J, Vogel F, Schmidt E, Werner M, Klar E, Secchi A, Gebhard MM, Glaser F, Herfarth C (2000) Effects of hydrogen peroxide scavenger Catalase on villous microcirculation in the rat small intestine in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. Microvasc Res 59:329–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ruifrok AC, Johnston DA (2001) Quantification of histochemical staining by color deconvolution. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 23:291–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sobrova P, Adam V, Vasatkova A, Beklova M, Zeman L, Kizek R (2010) Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity. Interdiscip Toxicol 3:94–99CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Strzalka W, Ziemienowicz A (2011) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a key factor in DNA replication and cell cycle regulation. Ann Bot 107:1127–1140Google Scholar
  67. Takemura H, Shim JY, Sayama K, Tsubura A, Zhu BT, Shimoi K (2007) Characterization of the estrogenic activities of zearalenone and zeranol in vivo and in vitro. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103:170–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Tiemann U, Brussow KP, Kuchenmeister U, Jonas L, Kohlschein P, Pohland R, Dänicke S (2006) Influence of diets with cereal grains contaminated by graded levels of two Fusarium toxins on selected enzymatic and histological parameters of liver in gilts. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1228–1235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Trenholm HL, Foster BC, Charmley LL, Thompson BK, Hartin KE, Coppock RW, Albassam MA (1994) Effects of feeding diets containing Fusarium (naturally) contaminated wheat or pure deoxynivalenol (DON) in growing pigs. Can J Anim Sci 74:361–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Valenta H, Dänicke S, Döll S (2003) Analysis of deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol in animal tissues by liquid chromatography after clean-up with an immunoaffinity column. Mycotoxin Res 19:51–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang DF, Zhang NY, Peng YZ, Qi DS (2012) Iteraction of zearalenone and soybean isoflavone in diets on the growth performance, organ development and serum parameters in prepubertal gilts. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 96:939–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilburn EE, Mahan DC, Hill DA, Shipp TE, Yang H (2008) An evaluation of natural (RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and synthetic (all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E fortification in the diet or drinking water of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 86:584–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Xiao H, Tan BE, Wu MM, Yin YL, Li TJ, Yuan DX, Li L (2013a) Effects of composite antimicrobial peptides in weanling piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol: II. Intestinal morphology and function. J Anim Sci 91:4750–4756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Xiao H, Wu MM, Tan BE, Yin YL, Li TJ, Xiao DF, Li L (2013b) Effects of composite antimicrobial peptides in weanling piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol: I. Growth performance, immune function, and antioxidation capacity. J Anim Sci 91:4772–4780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yang W, Yu M, Fu J, Bao W, Wang D, Hao L, Yao P, Nussler AK, Yan H, Liu L (2014) Deoxynivalenol induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol 64:383–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Yen JT (2001) Anatomy of the digestive system and nutritional physiology. In: Lewis AJ, Southern LL (eds) Swine nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp 32–63Google Scholar
  77. Yoshikawa T, Naito Y (2002) What is oxidative stress? JMAJ 45:271–276Google Scholar
  78. Zduńczyk Z, Drazbo A, Jankowski J, Juśkiewicz J, Czech A, Antoszkiewicz Z (2013) The effect of different dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant status and immunological markers in serum of laying hens. Pol J Vet Sci 16:333–339Google Scholar
  79. Zhang J, Tang Z, Wang N, Long L, Li K (2012) Evaluating a set of reference genes for expression normalization in multiple tissues and skeletal muscle at different development stages in pigs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. DNA Cell Biol 31:106–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bich Van Le Thanh
    • 1
  • Michel Lemay
    • 1
  • Alexandre Bastien
    • 1
  • Jérôme Lapointe
    • 2
  • Martin Lessard
    • 2
  • Younès Chorfi
    • 3
  • Frédéric Guay
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  2. 2.Sherbrooke Research and Development CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)SherbrookeCanada
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary BiomedicineUniversité de MontréalSaint HyacintheCanada

Personalised recommendations