Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 85–87 | Cite as

Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in commercial pasteurized milk samples in Sari, Mazandaran province, Iran

  • Hamidreza Mohammadi
  • Mohammad Shokrzadeh
  • Zahra Aliabadi
  • Bamdad Riahi-ZanjaniEmail author
Original Article


The frequency and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in pasteurized milk samples in Sari, located in Mazandaran province, Iran, were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Seventy-six samples of pasteurized milk from different retail stores were randomly collected over four seasons during the year 2015. AFM1 contamination was detected in all milk samples. The mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 was 65.8 ng/l, with a range of 11.7–106.6 ng/l. The highest AFM1 level was detected in milk samples collected during spring. Forty-six (60.53 %) samples had AFM1 levels that exceeded the maximum acceptable levels (50 ng/l) recommended by the European Union (EU). Comparison of these results with previously published data for AFM1 in milk in Iran shows that the percentage of samples exceeding the EU maximum level is consistently high over the years, indicating a general problem related to AFB1 contamination in dairy feedingstuff.


Sari Iran Pasteurized milk Aflatoxin M1 



This study was financially supported by Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with reference number 924.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest


Source of funding

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran


  1. Code C (2004) European Community comments for the Codex committee on food additives and contaminants—agenda item 15 (a) and 16 (f). FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  2. Creppy EE (2002) Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett 127:19–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Fallah AA (2010) Aflatoxin M1 contamination in dairy products marketed in Iran during winter and summer. Food Control 21:1478–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Humans IWGotEoCRt, Cancer IAfRo (1993) Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxinsGoogle Scholar
  5. Jalili M, Scotter M (2015) A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk. Iranian J Health Saf Environ 2:283–295Google Scholar
  6. Kamkar A, Jahed Khaniki G, Alavi SA (2011) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in Ardebil of Iran. Iranian j Environ Health Sci Eng 8:123–128Google Scholar
  7. Karimi G, Hassanzadeh M, Teimuri M, Nazari F, Nili A (2007) Aflatoxin M1 contamination in pasteurized milk in Mashhad, Iran. Iranian J Pharmaceut Sci 3:153–156Google Scholar
  8. Khanafari A, Soudi H, Miraboulfathi M (2007) Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production in corn. J Environ Health Sci Eng 4:163–168Google Scholar
  9. Oveisi M-R, Jannat B, Sadeghi N, Hajimahmoodi M, Nikzad A (2007) Presence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and infant milk products in Tehran, Iran. Food Control 18:1216–1218 doi: Scholar
  10. Panahi P, Kasaee S, Mokhtari A, Sharifi A, Jangjou A (2011) Assessment of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk by ELISA in Urmia. Iran. American-Eurasian J Toxicol Sci 3:231–233Google Scholar
  11. Riahi-Zanjani B, Balali-Mood M (2013) Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurized milk from local markets in Fariman, Iran. Mycotoxin Res 29:271–274. doi: 10.1007/s12550-013-0179-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Riahi-Zanjani B, Rahmani R, Rezayat Sorkhabadi SM, Aryan E, Oskouei Z, Sadeghi M, Balali Mood M (2015) A survey on aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of Fariman City, Khorasan Province, Iran. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 10:e20081 doi:10.17795/jjnpp-20081Google Scholar
  13. Sefidgar SA, Azizi G, Khosravi AR, Roudbar-Mohammadi S (2008) Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk at cattle farms in Babol, Iran. Pakistan J Biol Sci PJBS 11:484–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stoloff L, Van Egmond H, Park D (1991) Rationales for the establishment of limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam 8:213–221CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Unusan N (2006) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in UHT milk in Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1897–1900. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.06.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Vagef R, Mahmoudi R (2013) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk produced in west region of Iran (during summer and winter). Int Food Res J 20:1421–1425Google Scholar
  17. Wu F, Khlangwiset P (2010) Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin-reduction strategies in Africa: case studies in biocontrol and post-harvest interventions. Food Addit Contam 27:496–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yitbarek MB, Tamir B (2014) Mycotoxines and/or aflatoxines in milk and milk products: review. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 4:1–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamidreza Mohammadi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammad Shokrzadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zahra Aliabadi
    • 1
  • Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmacutical Science Research Center, Hemoglobinopathy InstituteMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  2. 2.Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of PharmacyMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  3. 3.Medical Toxicology Research Center, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations