Acute and subchronic effects on immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) in feed
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The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been shown to regularly occur at relevant concentrations in feed designed for aquaculture use, but little is known about the consequences of its presence on the organisms that consume the DON-contaminated feed. Previous studies indicated a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 4 weeks of feeding DON. The present study examined the time course of innate immune responses of carp to orally administered DON. Changes in mRNA levels of immune genes in different organs (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, and intestine) were observed indicating immune-modulating properties of DON. The immune-modulatory effects during the acute phase of DON exposure were characterized by the activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in carp. The subchronic responses to DON were characterized by activation of arginases culminating in increased arginase activity in head kidney leukocytes after 26 days of DON treatment. These results suggest profound effects of this mycotoxin on fish in aquaculture.
KeywordsImmunotoxicity Fish indices Aquatic toxicology Mycotoxin Aquaculture Cytokines
The work of CP was supported by the Basler Stiftung für Experimentelle Zoologie (Basel, Switzerland), the Reisefonds zur Nachwuchsförderung of the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC) by MB. BAK was supported by a NSERC Doctoral Canadian Graduate Scholarship. Furthermore, the authors like to thank Simon Herzog, Michael Schlachter, Florian Nagel, Heidi Schiffer, Irene Kalchhauser, and Joel Gerber for support during the samplings and additional help in the laboratory work. We would also like to thank Sven Dänicke (Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Braunschweig, Germany) for the analysis of DON in the experimental feeds.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
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