Advertisement

Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 89–96 | Cite as

A preliminary survey on the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contaminating red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia

  • Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin
  • Noorlidah Abdullah
Original Paper

Abstract

Red rice is a fermented product of Monascus spp. It is widely consumed by Malaysian Chinese who believe in its pharmacological properties. The traditional method of red rice preparation disregards safety regulation and renders red rice susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. A preliminary study was undertaken aiming to determine the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contamination on red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia. Fifty red rice samples were obtained and subjected to fungal isolation, enumeration, and identification. Citrinin, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin-A were quantitated by ELISA based on the presence of predominant causal fungi. Fungal loads of 1.4 × 104 to 2.1 × 106 CFU/g exceeded Malaysian limits. Monascus spp. as starter fungi were present in 50 samples (100 %), followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (62 %), Aspergillus niger (54 %), and Aspergillus flavus (44 %). Citrinin was present in 100 % samples (0.23–20.65 mg/kg), aflatoxin in 92 % samples (0.61–77.33 μg/kg) and Ochratoxin-A in 100 % samples (0.23–2.48 μg/kg); 100 % citrinin and 76.09 % aflatoxin exceeded Malaysian limits. The presence of mycotoxigenic fungi served as an indicator of mycotoxins contamination and might imply improper production, handling, transportation, and storage of red rice. Further confirmatory analysis (e.g., HPLC) is required to verify the mycotoxins level in red rice samples and to validate the safety status of red rice.

Keywords

Monascus purpureus Citrinin Aflatoxin Ochratoxin-A Chinese red rice 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors extended their gratitude and recognition to staffs at Food Science Department (UPM) and Fungal Biotechnology Unit (UM) for services and information contributed to the present work. Funding was from the University of Malaya, Malaysia: Internal Research Grant, and the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia: Academic Training Scheme

Conflict of interest

None

References

  1. Barber J, Staunton J (1979) Protium as a tracer in polyketide biosynthesis: incorporation of 13CH3:13CO2H into citrinin produced on a medium based on D2O. JCS Chem Comm 1979:1098–1099Google Scholar
  2. Berndt WO (1990) Ochratoxin-citrinin as nephrotoxins. In: Llewellyn GC, Rear PCO (eds) Biodeterioration research. Plenum, New York, pp 55–56Google Scholar
  3. Betina V (1989) Structure-activity relationships among mycotoxins. Chem Biol Interact 71:105–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beuchat LR (2003) Media for detecting and enumerating yeasts and moulds. In: Corry JEL et al (ed) Handbook of culture media for food microbiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 369–385Google Scholar
  5. Bilgrami KS, Sinha SP, Jeswal P (1988) Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of citrinin in mice (Mus musculus). Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 54:35–37Google Scholar
  6. Blanc PJ, Laussac JP, le Bars J, le Bars P, Loret MO, Pareilleux A, Prome D, Prome JC, Santerre AL, Goma G (1995) Characterisation of monascidin A from Monascus as citrinin. Int J Food Microbiol 27:201–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CAST (2003) Mycotoxins: Risks in plant, animal, and human systems. Council of Agricultural Science and Technology. Task Force Rep. No. 139. Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  8. Department of Statistics (2011) Preliminary count report in population and housing census, Malaysia. Department of Statistics, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Ei-Banna AA, Pitt JI, Leistner L (1987) Production of mycotoxins by Penicillium species. Syst Appl Microbiol 10:42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eisenbrand G (2006) Toxicological evaluation of red mould rice. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:322–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elliot RP (1980) Cereals and cereal products. In: The international commission on microbiological specifications for foods. Microbiological ecology of foods. Academic, New York, pp 669–730Google Scholar
  12. FAO (2003) Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed. Food and Agriculture Organisation, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Filternborg O, Frisvad JC, Thrane U (1996) Moulds in food spoilage. Int J Food Microbiol 33:85–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Food Regulation (1985) Regulation 39 (microorganisms and their toxins); Fifteenth Schedule; Table II (Mycological Contaminant), Malaysian Food RegulationGoogle Scholar
  15. Fuat ARM, Aidoo KE, Calvert TW, Candlish AAG (2006) Mycoflora, toxicity, and DNA interaction of poly-herbal products from Malaysia. Pharm Biol 44:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanika C, Carlton WW, Tuite J (1983) Citrinin mycotoxicosis in the rabbit. Food Chem Toxicol 21:487–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hawksworth DL, Pitt JI (1983) A new taxonomy for Monascus species based on cultural and microscopical characters. Aust J Bot 31:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hsieh PS, Tai YH (2003) Aqueous extract of Monascus purpureus M 9011 prevents and reverses fructose-induced hypertension in rats. J Agric Food Chem 51:3945–3950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janardhana GR, Raveesha KA, Shetty HS (1999) Mycotoxin contamination of maize grains grown in Karnataka (India). Food Chem Toxicol 37:863–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumari HPM, Naidu KA, Vishwanatha S, Narasimhamurthy K, Vijayalakshmi G (2009) Safety evaluation of Monascus purpureus red mould rice in albino rats. Food Chem Toxicol 47:1739–1746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li F, Xu G, Li Y, Chen Y (2003) Study on the production of citrinin by Monascus strains used in food industry. J Hyg Res 32:602–605Google Scholar
  22. Liu BH, Wu TS, Su MC, Chung CP, Yu FY (2005) Evaluation of citrinin occurrence and cytotoxicity in Monascus fermentation products. J Agric Food Chem 53:170–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma J, Li Y, Ye Q, Li J, Hua Y, Ju D, Zhang D, Cooper R, Chang M (2000) Constituents of red yeast rice, a traditional Chinese food and medicine. J Agric Food Chem 48:5220–5225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meri K, Marika J, Aldo R (2005) The effect of substrate on mycotoxin production of selected Penicillium strains. Int J Food Microbiol 99:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. NPCB (1999) Newsletter of the Drug Control Authority Malaysia. Overview of regulatory quality control; Test failures for samples analysed in 1998. National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, Ministry of Health, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Patel S, Hazel CM, Winterton AG, Mortby E (1996) Survey of ethnic foods for mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam 13:833–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramirez C (1982) Manual and atlas of the Penicillia. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  28. Raper KB, Fennel DI (1977) The genus Aspergillus. Kruger, HuntingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Reddy KRN, Reddy CS, Muralidharan K (2009) Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India. Food Microbiol 26:27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sabater-Vilar M, Maas RFM, Fink-Gremmels J (1999) Mutagenicity of commercial Monascus fermentation products and the role of citrinin contamination. Mutat Res 444:7–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sales AC, Yoshizawa T (2005) Updated profile of aflatoxin and Aspergillus section Flavi contamination in rice and its by-products from the Phillipines. Food Addit Contam 22:429–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sanchez-Hervas M, Gil JVV, Bisbal F, Ramon D, Martinez-Culebras PVV (2008) Mycobiota and mycotoxin producing fungi from cocoa beans. Int J Food Microbiol 125:336–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schatzmayr G, Zehner F, Taubel M, Schatzmayr D, Klimitsch A, Loibner AP (2006) Microbiologicals for deactivating mycotoxins. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:543–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shi YC, Pan TM (2010) Anti-diabetic effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 fermented products on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. J Agric Food Chem 58:7634–7640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shu PY, Lin CH (2002) Simple and sensitive determination of citrinin in Monascus by GC-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Anal Sci 18:283–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. USFDA (1998) United States Food and Drug Administration; inventory of GRAS notices under Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)Google Scholar
  37. Wang YZ, Ju XL, Zhou YG (2005) The variability of citrinin production in Monascus type cultures. Food Microbiol 22:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu BJ, Zhang SL (1991) Screening methods for blood lipid regulating drugs and antiatherosclerosis drugs. In: Xu SY et al (eds) Methodology for pharmacological experiments, 2nd edn. People’s Health Press, Beijing, pp 1047–1051Google Scholar
  39. Xu GR, Lu C, Mu XQ, Chen JL, Chen Y, Gu YM, Wu YP, Sheng F, Wu MY (1999) A study on the production of citrinin by Monascus spp. Arch Leb 50:88–91Google Scholar
  40. Xu BJ, Jia XQ, Gu LJ, Sung CK (2006) Review on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the mycotoxin citrinin. Food Control 17:271–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yates IE (1986) Bioassay systems and their use in diagnosis of mycotoxicoses. In: Richards JL, Thurston JR (eds) Diagnosis of mycotoxicoses. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 333–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zainal AO, Nor SIT (2011) National Cancer Registry report 2007. Ministry of Health, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  43. Zheng Y, Xin Y, Guo Y (2009) Study on the fingerprint profile of Monascus products with HPLC-FD, PAD and MS. Food Chem 113:705–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin
    • 1
  • Noorlidah Abdullah
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaUPM SerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaFederal Territory of Kuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations