Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 177–181 | Cite as

Co-occurrence of mycotoxins in swine feed produced in Portugal

  • Inês Almeida
  • Hermínia Marina Martins
  • Sara Santos
  • José M. Costa
  • Fernando Bernardo
Original Paper


A total of 404 samples of commercial swine feed from Portugal feed mills were analysed by HPLC methods for the presence of mycotoxins: 277 samples of feed for fattening pigs were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), and deoxynivalenol (DON), and 127 samples of feed for sows were analysed for ZEA and fumonisins (FB1 + FB2). Concerning feed for fattening pigs, 21 (7.6%) samples were positive for OTA, (2–6.8 μg/kg), 69 (24.9%) were positive for ZEA (5–73 μg/kg), and 47 (16.9%) were positive for DON (100–864 μg/kg). In feed for sows, the results showed 29.9% of positive samples for ZEA (5–57.7 μg/kg) and 8.7% positive samples for FB1 and FB2 (50–391.4 μg/kg). Co-occurrence of DON/ZEA was found most frequently, but simultaneous contamination with OTA/ZEA and OTA/DON was also found.


Feed Swine Ochratoxin A Zearalenone Deoxynivalenol Fumonisins 


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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inês Almeida
    • 1
  • Hermínia Marina Martins
    • 2
  • Sara Santos
    • 2
  • José M. Costa
    • 1
  • Fernando Bernardo
    • 3
  1. 1.Direcção Geral de VeterináriaLargo da Academia Nacional de Bela ArtesLisboaPortugal
  2. 2.INRB-Laboratório Nacional de Investigação VeterináriaLisboaPortugal
  3. 3.Faculdade de Medicina VeterináriaPólo Universitário da AjudaLisboaPortugal

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