A review on comparative data concerning Fusarium mycotoxins in Bt maize and non-Bt isogenic maize
- 443 Downloads
The European corn borer reportedly promotes the infection of maize by Fusarium spp. Stalk and ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are often related to mycotoxin accumulation in maize kernels. As a result, food and animal feed from maize are more severely contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins: e.g. fumonisins (FUM), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). Bt maize is primarily an important potential tool for insect pest protection, both in the European Union and in other countries. Bt maize carrying the Bt genes is highly resistant to European corn borer larval feeding due to Bt toxin (δ toxin) production. Effective measures to combat pests therefore often have a positive side-effect in that they also reduce mycotoxin levels. Comparative analysis was used to the evaluation of the studies dealing with the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in Bt maize. Nineteen out of 23 studies on Bt maize came to the conclusion that Bt maize is less contaminated with mycotoxins (FUM, DON, ZEA) than the conventional control variety in each case.
KeywordsBt-maize Fusarium Deoxynivalenol Fumonisins Zearalenone
Financial support for this work was provided by the Czech Scientific Committee on Genetically modified Food and Feed.
- Aulrich K, Bohme H, Daenicke R, Halle I, Flachowsky G (2001) Genetically modified feeds (GMO) in animal nutrition: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition. Arch Anim Nutr 54:183–195Google Scholar
- Chung OK, Park SH, Kim Y (2007) Concerted efforts in cereal grain quality improvement. ICC International Conference on cereals and cereal products quality and safety, Rosario, Argentina, 23-26 September 2007.Google Scholar
- Dowd PF (1998) Involvement of arthropods in the establishment of mycotoxigenic fungi under field conditions. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D (eds) Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 307–350Google Scholar
- GMO Compass (2009) GM maize in the EU (http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/18.genetically_modified_maize_eu.html)
- Hammond BK, Campbell C, Pilcher T, De Gooyer A, Robinson L, Rice A, Pietri G Piva, Melcion D, Cahagnier B (2002) Reduction of fungal and fumonisin levels in Bt corn. Mycopathologia 155:22Google Scholar
- Masoero F, Moschini M, Rossi F, Prandini A, Pietri A (1999) Nutritive value, mycotoxin contamination and in vitro rumen fermentation of normal and genetically modified corn (Cry 1A(B)) grown in northern Italy. Maydica 44:205–209Google Scholar
- Papst C, Utz HF, Melchinger AE, Eder J, Magg T, Klein D, Bohn M (2005) Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. in isogenic Bt vs. non-Bt maize hybrids under European corn borer pressure. Agron J 97:219–224Google Scholar
- Wu F (2006b) An analysis of Bt corn’s benefits and risks for national and regional policymakers considering Bt corn adoption. Inter J Technol Global 2:115–136Google Scholar
- Wu F (2007) Bt corn and mycotoxin reduction. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 2(060), CABI, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Wu F, Miller JD, Casman EA (2004) Bt corn and mycotoxin reduction: economic impacts in the United States and the developing world. J Toxicol Toxin Rev 23:397–424Google Scholar