Trichothecene cytotoxicity of type A (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B (deoxynivalenol, DON, and nivalenol, NIV), and type D (satratoxins G and H) compounds was determined comparatively by using eight permanent human cell lines (Hep-G2, A549, CaCo-2, HEp-2, A204, U937, RPMI 8226, and Jurkat). Viability of cells was measured by a water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) reagent cell proliferation assay assessing mitochondrial metabolic activity. Toxicity was expressed as the toxin concentration inhibiting 50% of cell viability (IC50). Depending on the chemotype of the tested trichothecenes, relative cytotoxic activity differed by a factor of 100–1,000, and the corresponding IC50 values were in the range from 2.2 nmol/l (satratoxin H on Jurkat and U937 cells) to 4,900 nmol/l (deoxynivalenol on HEp-2 cells). In contrast, the specific toxicity of each individual mycotoxin towards different cell lines was within remarkable close limits, and between-cell line differences were much smaller than previously reported. For the cell lines tested, IC50 values were 4.4–10.8 nmol/l for T-2 toxin, 7.5–55.8 mol/l for HT-2 toxin, 600–4,900 nmol/l for DON, 300–2,600 nmol/l for NIV, and 2.2–18.3 nmol/l for satratoxins G/H. In addition, for the first time, the toxic activity of trichothecenes on primary cell culture of human endothelial cells (HUVEC) was tested. The susceptibility of this cell line was comparable to the other cell lines tested, with IC50 values ranging from 16.5 nmol/l (T-2 toxin) to 4,500 nmol/l (DON). The results suggest that the current focus of cytotoxicological studies on trichothecenes on lymphoid cell lines may lead to an underestimate of their potential on other target cell systems.
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This work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GK-1029) and from the “Brigitte and Wolfram Gedek-Stiftung für Mykotoxinforschung”. We thank Brunhilde Minich und Christine Ehlich for excellent technical assistance.
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