Emsian (Lower Devonian) conodonts from the Lufengshan section (Guangxi, South China)

  • Jianfeng Lu
  • José Ignacio Valenzuela-Ríos
  • Chengyuan Wang
  • Jau-Chyn Liao
  • Yi Wang
Original Paper

Abstract

The Lufengshan section (Guangxi, South China) is one of the best representative sections of the Xiangzhou facies (benthic facies), from which a few Emsian conodont studies have been accomplished in the past. In this paper, we present conodonts from the Upper Member of the Ertang Formation at the Lufengshan section. The conodont fauna is characterised by a distinctly low diversity with only six species reported and is assigned to the nothoperbonus Zone. ‘Ozarkodina’? chenae, ‘O.’? wuxuanensis and Polygnathus praeinversus are newly described species herein. A comparison of the contemporaneous conodont faunas between the Lufengshan, Liujing and Daliantang sections indicates that the conodont biodiversity during the time of the nothoperbonus Zone in South China is mainly bathymetrically controlled. Moreover, P. praeinversus, which was previously thought to be transitional between P. inversus and P. serotinus, is interpreted to represent an intermediate form between P. nothoperbonus and P. inversus on the basis of stratigraphical and morphological analyses. The outline of the basal cavity of this new polygnathid species better documents the evolutionary process of the inversion of the basal cavity of Polygnathus: the basal cavity in the middle part of the platform starts to invert on the inner side at first, whereas the flat or slightly elevated outer flank of basal cavity is laterally extended to form a shelf-like protuberance on the outer side of the pit.

Keywords

Ertang Formation nothoperbonus Zone Wuxuan Biodiversity Inversion of basal cavity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Chanming Yu and Wenkun Qie (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology) and Jiangsi Liu (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan) for their assistances in the field. Thomas J. Suttner and an anonymous reviewer read critically this paper and provided many important suggestions and comments from which we have profited largely. This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41702009, 41290260 and 41530103) and State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy (Y721053109 and Y726040107). J.C. Liao was supported by the Juan de la Cierva Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Reference

  1. Bai, S. L., Ning, Z. S., Jin, S. Y., Ho, J. H., & Han, Y. J. (1979a). Devonian conodonts and Tentaculitids of Kwangsi, their zonation and correlation. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1, 99–118.Google Scholar
  2. Bai, S. L., Ning, Z. S., Jin, S. Y., He, J. H., & Han, Y. J. (1979b). Devonian platform conodonts and nowakiids of Kwangsi. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 4, 57–84.Google Scholar
  3. Bai, S. L., Jin, S. Y., & Ning, Z. S. (1982). The Devonian biostratigraphy of Guangxi and adjacent area. Beijing: Peking University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bai, S. L., Bai, Z. Q., Ma, X. P., Wang, D. R., & Sun, Y. L. (1994). Devonian events and biostratigraphy of South China: conodont zonation and correlation, bio-event and chemo-event, Milankovitch cycle and nickel-episode. Beijing: Peking University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baranov, V. V., & Blodgett, R. B. (2016). Some Emsian (Lower Devonian) Polygnathids of northeast Eurasia. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 74, 13–24.Google Scholar
  6. Baranov, V. V., Slavík, L., & Blodgett, R. B. (2014). Early Devonian polygnathids of Northeast Asia and correlation of Pragian/Emsian strata of the marginal seas of Angarida. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(3), 645–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bardashev, I. A. (1986). Emsian conodonts of the genus Polygnathus from central Tadzhikistan. Paleontological Journal, 20(2), 56–62.Google Scholar
  8. Bardashev, I. A., Weddige, K., & Ziegler, W. (2002). The phylomorphogenesis of some Early Devonian platform conodonts. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 82(2), 375–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bassler, R. (1925). Classification and stratigraphic use of the conodonts. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 36(1), 218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boersma, K. T. (1973). Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, 49(2), 285–301.Google Scholar
  11. Branson, E. B., & Mehl, M. G. (1933). Conodont studies no. 1: conodonts from the Harding Sandstone of Colorado; Bainbridge (Silurian) of Missouri; Jefferson City (Lower Ordovician) of Missouri. Missouri University Studies, 8, 5–72.Google Scholar
  12. Bultynck, P. (1989). Conodonts from the La Grange Limestone (Emsian), Armorican Massif, north-western France. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 117, 173–203.Google Scholar
  13. Carls, P., & Gandl, J. (1969). Stratigraphie und Conodonten des Unter-Devons der Östlichen Iberischen Ketten (NE-Spanien). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 132(2), 155–218.Google Scholar
  14. Chen, X. Q. (1983). Brachiopods from Devonian Ertang Formation in Central Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 22(6), 685–700.Google Scholar
  15. Dzik, J. (1976). Remarks on the evolution of Ordovician conodonts. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 21(4), 395–455.Google Scholar
  16. Hass, W. H. (1959). Conodonts from the Barnett Formation of Texas. United States Geological Survey, Professional Papers, 294-J, 365–400.Google Scholar
  17. Hinde, G. J. (1879). On conodonts from the Chazy and Cincinnati Group of the Cambro-Silurian, and from the Hamilton and Genesee-Shale divisions of the Devonian, in Canada and the United States. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 35(1–4), 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hou, H. F., & Wang, S. T. (1988). Stratigraphy of China, no. 7: the Devonian system of China. Beijing: Geological Publishing House.Google Scholar
  19. Jeppson, L., & Anehus, R. (1999). A new technique to separate conodont elements from heavier minerals. Alcheringa, 23(1), 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jin, S. Y., Shen, A. J., Chen, Z. L., Lu, J. M., Wei, M., Wang, Y. Q., & Xie, F. (2005). Mixed biostratigraphy of Devonian in Wenshan, Yunnan. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kim, A. I., Yolkin, E. A., Erina, M. V., & Gratsianova, R. T. (1978). Field session of the international Subcommission on Devonian stratigraphy, Samarkand, USSR. In B. S. Sokolov & V. G. Garkovets (Eds.), Type sections of the Lower and Middle Devonian boundary beds in Middle Asia, A Guide to Field Excursions. Atlas of paleontological plates. Supplement to Guide of the Field Excursion (pp. 1–55). Tashkent.Google Scholar
  22. Klapper, G., & Johnson, D. B. (1975). Sequence in conodont genus Polygnathus in lower Devonian at Lone Mountain, Nevada. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 9, 65–83.Google Scholar
  23. Klapper, G., & Philip, G. M. (1971). Devonian conodont apparatuses and their vicarious skeletal elements. Lethaia, 4(4), 429–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krukowski, S. T. (1988). Sodium Metatungstate: a new heavy-mineral separation medium for the extraction of conodonts from insoluble residues. Journal of Paleontology, 62(2), 314–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuang, G. D., Zhao, M. T., & Tao, Y. B. (1989). Liujing section of Guangxi—the standard Devonian section of China. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press.Google Scholar
  26. Liao, W. H., Xu, H. K., Wang, C. Y., Ruan, Y. P., Cai, C. Y., Mu, D. C., & Lu, L. C. (1978). Subdivision and correlation of the Devonian strata of Southwest China. In Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Ed.), Symposium on the Devonian Strata of South China (pp. 193–213). Beijing: Geological Publishing House.Google Scholar
  27. Lu, J. F., & Chen, X. Q. (2016). New insights into the base of the Emsian (Lower Devonian) in South China. Geobios, 49(6), 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lu, J. F., Qie, W. K., & Chen, X. Q. (2016). Pragian and lower Emsian (Lower Devonian) conodonts from Liujing, Guangxi, South China. Alcheringa, 40(2), 275–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ma, X. P., Liao, W. H., & Wang, D. M. (2009). The Devonian system of China, with a discussion on sea-level change in South China. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 314, 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martínez-Pérez, C., & Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I. (2014). New Lower Devonian Polygnathids (Conodonta) from the Spanish Central Pyrenees, with comments on the early radiation of the group. Journal of Iberian Geology, 40(1), 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martínez-Pérez, C., Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I., Navas-Parejo, P., Liao, J. C., & Botella, H. (2011). Emsian (Lower Devonian) Polygnathids (conodont) succession in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Journal of Iberian Geology, 37(1), 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mawson, R. (1987). Early Devonian conodont faunas from Buchan and Bindi, Victoria, Australia. Palaeontology, 30(2), 251–297.Google Scholar
  33. Mawson, R., & Talent, J. A. (2003). Conodont faunas from sequences on or marginal to the Anakie Inlier (Central Queensland, Australia) in relation to Devonian transgressions. Bulletin of Geosciences, 78(4), 335–358.Google Scholar
  34. Merrill, G. K. (1987). Cryogenic density separation of conodonts. In R. L. Austin (Ed.), Conodonts: Investigative techniques and applications (pp. 63–66). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Ltd..Google Scholar
  35. Pedder, A. E. H., Jackson, J. H., & Philip, G. M. (1970). Lower Devonian biostratigraphy in the Wee Jasper Region of New South Wales. Journal of Paleontology, 44(2), 206–251.Google Scholar
  36. Philip, G. M. (1966). Lower Devonian conodonts from the Buchan Group, Eastern Victoria. Micropaleontology, 12(4), 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Philip, G. M., & Jackson, J. H. (1967). Lower Devonian subspecies of the conodont Polygnathus linguiformis Hinde from southeastern Australia. Journal of Paleontology, 41(5), 1262–1266.Google Scholar
  38. Savage, N. M. (1988). The use of sodium polytungstate for conodont separations. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 7(1), 39–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Talent, J. A., & Mawson, R. (1999). North-Eastern Molong Arch and adjacent Hill End Trough (eastern Australia); mid-Palaeozoic conodont data and implication. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 54, 49–105.Google Scholar
  40. Telford, P. G. (1975). Lower and middle Devonian conodonts from the Broken River Embayment, North Queensland, Australia. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 15, 1–96.Google Scholar
  41. Uyeno, T. T. (1990). Biostratigraphy and conodont faunas of Upper Ordovician through Middle Devonian rocks, eastern Arctic Archipelago. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin, 401, 1–211.Google Scholar
  42. Uyeno, T. T., & Klapper, G. (1980). Summary of conodont biostratigraphy of the Blue Fiord and Bird Fiord formations (Lower-Middle Devonian) at the type and adjacent areas, southwestern Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Geological Survey of Canada Paper, 80-1C, 81–93.Google Scholar
  43. Wang, C. Y. (1979). Some conodonts from the Sipai Formation in Xiangzhou of Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 18(4), 395–407.Google Scholar
  44. Wang, C. Y. (1981). Conodonts from Devonian Ertang Formation in Central Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 20(5), 400–405.Google Scholar
  45. Wang, C. Y. (1989). Devonian conodont of Guangxi. Memoris of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, 25, 1–231.Google Scholar
  46. Wang, C. Y., & Wang, Z. H. (1978). Early and Middle Devonian conodonts of Kwangsi and Yunnan province. In Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Ed.), Symposium on the Devonian System of South China (pp. 334–345). Beijing: Geological Publishing House.Google Scholar
  47. Wang, C. Y., & Ziegler, W. (1983). Devonian conodont biostratigraphy of Guangxi, South China, and the correlation with Europe. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 17, 75–107.Google Scholar
  48. Wang, Y., Yu, C. M., & Wu, Q. (1974). Advances in the Devonian biostratigraphy of South China. Memoirs of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, 6, 1–71.Google Scholar
  49. Weddige, K. (1977). Die Conodonten der Eifel-Stufe im Typusgebiet und in benachbarten Faziesgebieten. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 58(4/5), 271–419.Google Scholar
  50. Weddige, K., & Ziegler, W. (1979). Evolutionary patterns in Middle Devonian conodont genera Polygnathus and Icriodus. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 13, 157–164.Google Scholar
  51. Xian, S. Y., Wang, S. D., Zhou, X. Y., Xiong, J. F., & Zhou, T. R. (1980). Nandan typical stratigraphy and paleontology of Devonian, in South China. Guiyang: Guizhou People’s Press.Google Scholar
  52. Yolkin, E. A., Weddige, K., Izokh, N. G., & Erina, M. V. (1994). New Emsian conodont zonation (Lower Devonian). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 168, 139–157.Google Scholar
  53. Yolkin, E. A., Izokh, N. G., Weddige, K., Erina, M. V., Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I., & Apekina, L. S. (2011). Eognathodid and Polyganthid lineages from the Kitab State Geological Reserve section (Zeravshan-Gissar moutainous area, Uzbekistan) as the bases for improvements of Pragian–Emsian standard conodont zonation. News of Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, 15, 37–45.Google Scholar
  54. Yu, C. M., & Kuang, G. D. (1980). Rugose corals from Devonian Ertang Formation of Central Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 19(3), 176–181.Google Scholar
  55. Yu, C. M., & Yin, B. A. (1978). A new stratigraphic unit of Lower Devonian in Central Guangxi. Acta Stratigraphica Sinica, 2(1), 23–31.Google Scholar
  56. Yun, Y. (1978). Subdivision and correlation of the Devonian strata of Eastern Yunnan. In Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Ed.), Symposium on the Devonian System of South China (pp. 151–166). Beijing: Geological Publishing House.Google Scholar
  57. Ziegler, W., & Wang, C. Y. (1985). Sihongshan section, a regional reference section for the Lower-Middle and Middle-Upper Devonian boundaries in East Asia. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 75, 17–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianfeng Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • José Ignacio Valenzuela-Ríos
    • 2
  • Chengyuan Wang
    • 1
  • Jau-Chyn Liao
    • 2
  • Yi Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanjing Institute of Geology and PalaeontologyChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Botany and GeologyUniversity of ValenciaBurjassotSpain

Personalised recommendations