Ostracods from the Devonian-Carboniferous transition in Dushan of Guizhou, South China
- 136 Downloads
Thirty-seven ostracod species belonging to 25 genera from the Devonian-Carboniferous (D/C) transition in Dushan of Guizhou, South China are identified and figured. The stratigraphical distribution of ostracods in the Baihupo section suggests that the D/C boundary should be fixed in the basal part of the Tangbagou Formation, which is also the boundary between Gelaohe and Tangbagou formations. The ostracod assemblages from the Gelaohe Formation belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage, incorporating palaeocopid and smooth-podocopid associations, which implies a nearshore-offshore palaeoenvironment, while the ecological assemblages of ostracods from the Tangbagou Formation correspond to a smooth-podocopid association that indicates an offshore palaeoenvironment. There was probably a transgression during the D/C transition when Gelaohe and Tangbagou formations were being deposited in Dushan of Guizhou.
KeywordsOstracods Devonian-Carboniferous boundary Palaeoecology Guizhou South China
Ostracods are one of the most widespread and diverse group of crustaceans since the Early Ordovician with plentiful fossil species (Horne et al. 2002; Siveter 2008). Devonian and Carboniferous are favourable periods for ostracods, particularly in marine environments, from coastal seas to deep settings. They play an important role in stratigraphic subdivisions and consequently for correlations (e.g. Lethiers 1978, 1981; Olempska 1981, 1997; Casier 1987, 2003, 2004, 2008; Blumenstengel 1993; Casier et al. 2002; Song et al. 2017). Moreover, ostracods are certainly the best fossil group to reconstruct Palaeozoic palaeoenvironments (Casier 2017) and they provide insights into the evolution of the Devonian-Carboniferous (D/C) global bioenvironments due to their sensitivity to ambient factors such as salinity, bathymetry, temperature, hydrodynamics, oxygenation, and nutrients (Lethiers 1981; Casier and Olempska 2008; Olempska and Belka 2010; Casier et al. 2005, 2011; Song and Gong 2015a, b).
The D/C boundary ostracods of South China have so far been little known, except for the ostracods described from Guangdong (Zhao and Zhang 1997). In Guizhou Province, Shi (1964) reported Middle and Upper Devonian ostracods from Dushan and Ji and Chen (1987) described Lower Carboniferous ostracods from Changshun. However, the ostracods in the D/C transitional have never been discussed systematically but just mentioned several times in papers dealing with other faunas. The goal of this paper is to report the ostracods occurring close to the D/C boundary in Guizhou, South China for the first time and to discuss their biostratigraphical and palaeoecological implications.
Material and methods
The D/C boundary has been placed at the first appearance of the conodont species Siphonodella sulcata within the evolutionary lineage from S. praesulcata to S. sulcata (Paproth and Streel 1984). But nowadays, this definition is under review and is controversial, as new S. sulcata faunas below the present GSSP have been found (Kaiser 2009; Becker et al. 2016) in the D/C stratotype section (La Serre, Montagne Noire, France). Due to shallow-marine settings, pelagic conodont species are absent in the Baihupo sections. Therefore, the position of the D/C boundary cannot be fixed precisely between the Gelaohe and Tangbagou formations. Evidence from conodonts suggests that the D/C boundary probably lie in the lower part of the Tangbagou Formation, where macrofossils are missing (Zhang et al. 2011a). However, evidence from coral and brachiopod show that the D/C boundary in South China should be marked by the disappearance of Cystophrentis and Cyrtospirifer, respectively. It may be in accord with the lithological boundary, i.e. the boundary between the Gelaohe and Tangbagou formations (Yang 1964, 1978; Zhang et al. 2011a).
The ostracod assemblages from the Baihupo section are characterised by Hollinoidea (e.g. Hollinella Coryell, 1928, Parabolbina Swartz, 1936, Parasargentina Zheng, 1982), Primitiopsidae (i.e. Selebratina Polenova, 1953, Svislinella Adamczak,1968), Cavellinidae (i.e. Cavellina Coryell, 1928, Indivisia Zaspelova, 1954), Bairdioidea (e.g. Bairdia McCoy, 1844, Bairdiacypris Bradfield, 1935, Rectobairdia Sohn, 1960, Baschkirina Rozhdestvenskaja, 1959, Fabalicypris Cooper, 1946), and Bairdiocypridoidea (e.g. Bairdiocypris Kegel, 1932, Healdianella Posner, 1951, Microcheilinella Geis, 1933). Some of them occurred also in the Devonian of South China. For example, Parabolbina camptosulcus Wei, 1983 was first reported from the Lower Devonian in Yuexi, Sichuan (Wei et al. 1983). Rectobairdia elongata Wei, 1983 was originally described from the Middle Devonian in Xuanwutian, Yunnan. Cavellina prona Wei, 1988 and Indivisia minata Wei, 1988 often appeared in the Upper Devonian of Sichuan (Wei 1988). Meanwhile, some typical Carboniferous species appeared mostly from the bed 20 to the bed 40 in the studied section. For instance, Bairdia magna Tschigova 1960, B. beichuanensis Wei, 1983, and Bairdiacypris auriculata Wei, 1983 were described from the Yanguan Formation (Lower Carboniferous) in South China such as Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guizhou (Wei et al. 1983; Zhang and Xiong 1987), and the first mentioned species was also originally described from the Lower Carboniferous in the Russian Platform (Tschigova 1960). Overall, the age of the ostracod assemblages from the Baihupo section (Fig. 3) should be close to the D/C boundary.
A few ostracod species with stratigraphic significance may offer new evidences to identify the D/C boundary in the Baihupo section. For example, Selebratina vellicata Casier and Lethiers, 2002 was first reported in the Upper Devonian of Holy Cross Mountains, Poland and died out in the late Famennian (Casier et al. 2002). This species occurred in the Gelaohe Formation in the Baihupo section and disappeared at the base of the bed 28. Similarly, Cavellina prona Wei, 1988 and I. minata Wei 1988 are missing in the Tangbagou Formation (they only occurred under the bed 28), whereas they are common in the Upper Devonian of South China but never been reported in the Carboniferous strata (Wei 1988). Moreover, Paraparchites longmenshanensis Wei, 1983, which was described originally in the Lower Carboniferous in Sichuan (Wei et al. 1983), first appeared in the bed 30 and is abundant in the Tangbagou Formation. Therefore, based on the ostracod fauna, we can conclude that the D/C boundary might be present at the base of the Tangbagou Formation, even though the precise position is yet uncertain. Nevertheless, this result is also supported by the study of corals and brachiopods (Yang 1964, 1978). Thus, the Baihupo section provides evidence of the ostracod faunal response to the D/C event, which is emphasised to be one of the most severe bioevents in the Phanerozoic history for causing the drastic biotic turnover from the Middle to Late Palaeozoic faunal regime (Walliser 1996; Komatsu et al. 2014; Kaiser et al. 2016).
The ostracod faunas from the Gelaohe Formation in the Baihupo section are dominated by palaeocopids (about 45% of total number of species) and podocopids (about 47% of total number of species, mainly smooth species of Bairdiidae and Acratiidae). Platycopids occur less frequently, just 8% of total number of species. Thus, the ostracod assemblages are a mixture of two associations, i.e. palaeocopid and smooth-podocopid associations (Fig. 6). It is also ecologically equivalent to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage (ecotype), which is generally characterised by a rich and diverse ostracod fauna indicative of a nearshore-offshore setting (Bandel and Becker 1975; Casier 2004, 2008). Upwardly, the ostracod faunas from the Tangbagou Formation are dominated by podocopids (about 67% of the total number), among which marine bairdioids represent about 35% of the total number of species. Palaeocopids (e.g. Aparchitoidea, Primitiopsoidea, and Paraparchitoidea) and platycopids (Glyptopleuroidea) comprise 20 and 13% of the total number of species in the Tangbagou Formation, respectively. Therefore, the ostracod assemblages belong to the smooth-podocopid association, which implies an offshore palaeoenvironment (Figs. 3 and 6).
In a word, the Gelaohe Formation and the lower part of the Tangbagou Formation of the Baihupo section were deposited during a transgression. Trace fossils and sedimentological evidences also support the view that the marine water depth fluctuated during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous in the study area, and a shallow depositional palaeoenvironment of the Gelaohe Formation is followed by a deepening-upward trend (Wang and Wang 1996; Wang 2004; Zhang et al. 2011b).
Thirty-seven ostracod species belonging to 25 genera from the D/C transition of Dushan, Guizhou Province, in South China were identified and figured for the first time. Our ostracod data suggest that the location of the D/C boundary lies at the base of the Tangbagou Formation and is consistent with the lithological boundary between the Tangbagou Formation and the Gelaohe Formation. The ostracods reported from the Gelaohe Formation belong to the palaeocopid association and to the smooth-podocopid association (the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage) and occupied nearshore-offshore palaeoenvironments, while the ostracod assemblage in the lower part of the Tangbagou Formation belongs to a smooth-podocopid association indicating an offshore palaeoenvironment. The Gelaohe and Tangbagou formations in the Baihupo section were deposited during a transgression in Guizhou, South China.
Many thanks to Dr. Wenkun Qie from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his help in improving the manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge Ruoying Fan, Xinsong Zhang, Junning Su, Caohui Dong, and Zhenzhong Xiang all from China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) for their joint fieldwork. We are greatly indebted to the reviewers, Dr. Jean-Georges Casier (RINSB, Brussels, Belgium) and Dr. Claudia Dojen (Klagenfurt am Woerthersee, Austria). Their suggestions and comments have improved the scope and language of the manuscript.
This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41290260, 41472001) and Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology) (Grant No. 2017KF06).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bandel, K., & Becker, G. (1975). Ostracoden aus paläozoischen pelagischen Kalken der Karnischen Alpen (Silurium bis Unterkarbon). Senckenbergiana lethaea, 56, 1–84.Google Scholar
- Becker, R. T., Kaiser, S. I., & Aretz, M. (2016). Review of chrono-, litho- and biostratigraphy across the global Hangenberg crisis and Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. In R. T. Becker, P. Königshof, & C. E. Brett (Eds.), Devonian climate, sea level and evolutionary events, Geological society (p. 423). London: Special Publications.Google Scholar
- Blumenstengel, H. (1993). Ostracods from the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary beds in Thuringia (Germany). Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, 115(2), 483–489.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. (1987). Etude biostratigraphique et paléoécologique des Ostracodes du récif de marbre rouge du Hautmont à Vodelée (partie supérieure du Frasnien, Bassin de Dinant, Belgique). Revue de Paléobiologie, 6, 193–204.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. (2003). Ostracods from the late Frasnian of the Neuville railway section (Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium): relation to the Kellwasser Event. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 174, 149–157.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. (2004). The mode of life of Devonian entomozoacean ostracods and the Myodocopid Mega-Assemblage proxy for hypoxic events. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 74-supplement, 73–80.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. (2008). Guide de l’excursion: Les ostracodes du Dévonien Moyen et Supérieur du Synclinorium de Dinant. In J. G. Casier (Ed.), Résumé des Communications et Guide de l'Excursion 22 ème Réunion des Ostracodologistes de Langue Française, Bruxelles 2–4 Juin (pp. 25–79). Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. (2017). Ecology of Devonian ostracods: application to the Frasnian/Famennian boundary bioevent in the type region (Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium). In B. Mottequin, L. Slavik and P. Königshof (Eds.) Climate change and biodiversity patterns in the mid-Palaeozoic. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 97(3), 553–564.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G. & Olempska, E. (2008). Middle Frasnian (Devonian) ostracods from the Frasnes railway section (Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium): taxonomy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 78, 51–66.Google Scholar
- Casier, J.-G., Devleeschouwer, X., Lethiers, F., Préat, A., & Racki, G. (2002). Ostracods and fore–reef sedimentology of the Frasnian–Famennian boundary beds in Kielce (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(2), 227–246.Google Scholar
- Casier, J. -G., Lebon, A., Mamet, B. & Préat, A. (2005). Ostracods and lithofacies close to the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary in the Chanxhe and Rivage sections, northeastern part of the Dinant Basin, Belgium. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 75, 95–126.Google Scholar
- Casier, J -G, Devleeschouwer, X., Maillet, S., Petitclerc, E. & Préat, A. (2011). Ostracodes, rock facies and magnetic susceptibility of the Givetian/Frasnian transition at Sourd D’ave (Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium). Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 43, 427.Google Scholar
- Dong, R. S. (1982). Geotectonic evolution and Devonian Palaeotectonic framework in South China. Journal of Chengdu College of Geology, 19, 58–64 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Ji, Q. (1989). On the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction event in South China. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 117, 275–301.Google Scholar
- Ji, Q., & Chen, X. Z. (1987). Ostracods from the Muhua Formation, Changshun County, Guizhou. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 4(2), 225–230.Google Scholar
- Jiang, J. J. (1994). The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary based on Lower Carboniferous conodonts in Guizhou. Regional Geology of China, 1, 21–27 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Kaiser, S. I., Aretz, M. & Becker, R. H. (2016). The global Hangenberg Crises (Devonian-Carboniferous transition): review of the first-order mass extinction. In R. T. Becker, P. Königshof, & C. E. Brett (Eds.) Devonian Climate, Sea Level and Evolutionary Events, 423 (pp.387–437). Geological Society, London, Special Publications.Google Scholar
- Komatsu, T., Kato, S., Hirata, K., Takashima, R., Ogata, Y., Oba, M., Naruse, H., Ta, P. H., Nguyen, P. D., Dang, H. T., Doan, T. N., Nguyen, H. H., Sakata, S., Kaiho, K., & Königshof, P. (2014). Devonian-Carboniferous transition containing a Hangenberg Black Shale equivalent in the Pho Han Formation on Cat Ba Island, northeastern Vietnam. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 404, 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lethiers, F. (1978). Ostracodes du Devonien terminal de la Formation Big Valley, Saskatchewan et Alberta. Palaeontographica, 162, 81–143.Google Scholar
- Lethiers, F., & Crasquin-Soleau, S. (1988). Comment extraire des microfossiles à tests calcitiques de roches calcaires dures. Revue de Micropaléontologie, 31(1), 56–61.Google Scholar
- Ma, X. P., Gong, Y. M., Chen, D. Z., Racki, G., Chen, X. Q., & Liao, W. H. (2016). The Late Devonian Frasnian–Famennian Event in South China—patterns and causes of extinctions, sea level changes, and isotope variations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 448, 224–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olempska, E. (1981). Lower Carboniferous ostracodes of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 26(1), 35–53.Google Scholar
- Olempska, E. (1997). Changes in benthic Ostracoda assemblages across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 42(2), 29l–332.Google Scholar
- Paproth, E., & Streel, M. (1984). Precision and practicability: on the definition of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 67, 255–258.Google Scholar
- Shi, C. G. (1964). The Middle and Upper Devonian Ostracoda from Dushan and Douyun, Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 12, 34–59 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Song, J. J., & Gong, Y. M. (2015b). Progresses and prospects of Paleozoic ostracod study. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 54, 404–424 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Song, J. J., Crasquin, S., & Gong, Y. M. (2017). Ostracods of the Late Devonian Frasnian/Famennian transition from western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW China. Alcheringa, 2017, 41(2), 250–276.Google Scholar
- Tschigova, V. A. (1960). New ostracodes from the Dankovsk-Lebedjansk, Chovansk and Lichvinsk deposits of the Russian Platform. Trudy VNII , Moscow, 23, 205–233. [in Russian].Google Scholar
- Wang, S. Q. (1988). Late Paleozoic ostracode associations from South China and their paleoecological significance. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 27, 91–102 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Wang, Y. (2001). On outcrop sequence stratigraphy of Carboniferous in Dushan, Guizhou. Guizhou Geology, 18(4), 217–223 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Wang, Y. (2004). Some trace fossils after the Frasnian-Famennian extinct in Dushan area, Southern Guizhou Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 43(1), 132–141.Google Scholar
- Wang, Y., & Wang, X. L. (1996). Trace fossils near Devonian-Carboniferous boundary section in Dushan, Guizhou. Journal of Stratigraphy, 20(4), 285–290 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Wei, M. (1988). Systematic palaeontology—Ostracoda. In H. F. Hou (Ed.), Devonian stratigraphy, palaeotology and sedimentary facies of Longmenshan, Sichuan (pp. 277–314). Beijing: Geological Publishing House [in Chinese with English summary].Google Scholar
- Wei, M., Jiang, Z. W., Xie, L. C., & Li, Y. W. (1983). Palaeontological atlas of southwest China—micropalaeontology volumes—ostracods (pp. 1–810). Beijing: Geological Publishing House [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Yang, S. P. (1964). Lower Carboniferous Tournaisian brachiopods from southeast of Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 12(1), 82–116 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Yang, S. P. (1978). Lower Carboniferous brachiopod fauna and its stratigraphic significance in Guizhou. Memoir of Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology Academy Sinica, 5, 78–142 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Zhang, J. J. & Xiong, J. F. (1987). Early Carboniferous Ostracoda from Changshun of Guizhou. Bulletin of the Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources 8, 37–46 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Zhang, Y.B., Sun, Y.L. & Ma, X.P. (2011a). Comprehensive biostratigraphic study of the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the shallow marine facies of Dushan, Guizhou. Memoir of the 26 th National Congress of the Palaeontological Society of China, (pp 85–86). Guanling, Guizhou.Google Scholar
- Zhang, L. J., Gong, Y. M., & Ma, H. Z. (2011b). The Devonian trace fossils and ichnofacies from South China. Journal of Palaeogeography, 13(4), 397–318 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar
- Zhao, R. X., & Zhang, X. Q. (1997). The ostracod fossil criteria for the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in Lechang, Guangdong. Guangdong Geology, 12(3), 67–76 [in Chinese with English abstract].Google Scholar