Advertisement

PalZ

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 427–437 | Cite as

A new Late Miocene ovibovine-like bovid (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Kassandra Peninsula (Chalkidiki, Northern Greece) and implications to the phylogeography of the group

  • Georgios Lazaridis
  • Dimitris S. Kostopoulos
  • George Lyras
  • Socrates Roussiakis
Research Paper

Abstract

A new Late Miocene bovid, Urmiatherium kassandriensis sp. nov., from Northern Greece is described. The material comes from the Fourka locality in the Kassandra Peninsula (Chalkidiki), and the included fauna is estimated to be of Vallesian age. The two preserved crania represent a medium-sized taxon with short, conical horn cores, a flat cranial roof (consisting of the posterior part of the frontals, parietal and occipital), thick and porous frontals and pneumatized short parietals, an extremely thick basioccipital with voluminous posterior tuberosities and accessory articular facets for the atlas. The specialized atlanto-occipital joint recalls Pleistocene and extant ovibovines, but the braincase structure as a whole and the horn core features closely match Late Miocene ovibovine-like taxa, especially Plesiaddax and even more Urmiatherium. Nevertheless, the Kassandra bovid differs from representatives of both genera in the simpler horn core morphology and external brain anatomy. Urmiatherium is known to appear first in China and Iran at about 7.8 Ma, whereas its westernmost appearance on Samos Island (Greece) is dated much later. The presence of Urmiatherium kassandriensis sp. nov. in N. Greece suggests a farther west and earlier (Vallesian at least) first appearance of the genus. This would justify a basic geographic and phylogenetic split of Urmiatherium into two main Turolian lineages: a central-eastern Asian one leading to the sister species U. polaki and U. intermedium and a western one leading to U. rugosifrons.

Keywords

Antilopinae Bovidae Mammals Late Miocene Greece 

Kurzfassung

Ein neuer Bovide aus dem späten Miozän von Nord-Griechenland, Urmiatherium kassandriensis sp. nov., wird beschrieben. Das Material stammt aus der Fourka-Lokalität der Kassandra-Halbinsel (Chalkidiki) und die enthaltene Fauna wird als Vallesium-zeitlich eingestuft. Die beiden vorhandenen Schädel stammen von einem mittelgroßen Taxon mit kurzen, konischen Hornzapfen, einem flachen cranialen Dach (bestehend aus dem hinteren Teil der Frontale, dem Parietale und dem Occipitale); dicke und poröse Frontale und luftgefüllte kurze Parietale; extrem dickes Basioccipitale mit voluminösen hinteren Höckern und zusätzlichen gelenkigen Flächen für den Atlas. Das spezialisierte obere Kopfgelenk gleicht denen pleistozäner und rezenter Ovibovin-ähnlicher Boviden; das Neurocranium als ganzes sowie die Hornzapfen-Merkmale entsprechen spätmiozänen Ovibovin-ähnlichen Taxa, speziell Plesiaddax und noch näher Urmiatherium. Nichtsdestotrotz unterscheidet sich der Kassandra-Hornträger von beiden Vertretern durch eine einfachere Hornzapfen-Morphologie sowie der äußeren Gehirnanatomie. Urmiatherium erscheint bekanntermaßen zuerst in China und dem Iran um etwa 7,8 Mio. Jahren, wohingegen das westlichste Auftreten auf der Insel Samos (Griechenland) erst viel später stattfindet. Die Anwesenheit von Urmiatherium kassandriensis sp. nov. in Nord-Griechenland deutet ein viel weiteres und früheres (mindestens Vallesium) erstes Auftreten der Gattung an. Dies würde eine grundsätzliche geographische und phylogenetische Spaltung von Urmiatherium in zwei Turolium-zeitliche Hauptverzweigungen rechtfertigen; einer zentral-östlichen asiatischen, die zur Schwesterart U. polaki führt und einer westlichen, die zu U. rugosifrons führt.

Schlüsselwörter

Antilopinae Bovidae Säugetiere spätes Miozän Griechenland 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Th. Liakos, who collected skull FRK19 in 2008 during the Kryopigi expeditions led by Assoc. Prof. Evangelia Tsoukala (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki). Thanks are also due to Dr. Denis Geraads (MNHN Paris) for kindly providing photos of the Injana skull. We are also grateful to Dr. Zhang Zhao-Qun (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Dr. Jan van der Made (Nacional Museum of Natural Sciences, Madrid) and the Editor-in-Chief of Paläont. Z., Dr. Mike Reich, for their insightful comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Barone, R. 1999. Anatomie comparée des mammifères domestiques. Tome 1: Ostéologie. Paris: Vigot frères.Google Scholar
  2. Bohlin, B. 1935a. Cavicornier der hipparion-fauna nord-Chinas. Paleontologia Sinica C 9 (4): 1–166.Google Scholar
  3. Bohlin, B. 1935b. Tsaidamotherium hedini, n.g., n. sp. Ein Einhörniger Ovibovine, aus den Tertiären Ablagerungen aus der Gegend des Tossun nor, Tsaidam. Geografiska Annaler: 66–74.Google Scholar
  4. Bosscha-Erdbrink, D.P. 1978. Fossil Ovibovines from Garkin near Afyon, Turkey (I) & (II). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen B 81: 145–185.Google Scholar
  5. Bouvrain, G., and L. De Bonis. 1984. Le genre Mesembriacerus (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia): un oviboviné primitif du Vallésien (Miocène supérieur) de Macédoine (Grèce). Palaeovertebrata 14 (4): 201–223.Google Scholar
  6. Bouvrain, G., S. Sen, and H. Thomas. 1995. Parurmiatherium rugosifrons Sickenberg, 1932, un Ovibovinae (Bovidae) du Miocène supérieur d’Injana (Djebel Hamrin, Irak). Geobios 28 (6): 719–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, Z.-Q., and G.-F. Zhang. 2004. Lantiantragus gen. nov. (Urmiatheriinae, Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Bahe Formation, Lantian, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 42 (3): 205–215.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, Z.-Q., and G.-F. Zhang. 2009. Taxonomy and evolutionary process of Neogene Bovidae from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 10: 265–281.Google Scholar
  9. De Mecquenem, R. 1925. Contribution à l’étude des fossiles de Maragha. Annales de Paléontologie 14: 1–34.Google Scholar
  10. Dechaseaux, C. 1961. Moulages endocraniens de Bovidés fossiles. Annales de Paléontologie 47: 49–73.Google Scholar
  11. Edinger, T. 1940. The brains of three Pontian Ovibovinae from China. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala 28: 133–140.Google Scholar
  12. Forsyth-Major, C. 1891. Considérations nouvelles sur la faune des Vertébrés du Miocène supérieur dans l'île de Samos. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 108: 608–610.Google Scholar
  13. Fortelius, M., J. Eronen, L. Liu, D. Pushkina, A. Tesakov, I. Vislobokova, and Z. Zhang. 2006. Late Miocene and Pliocene large land mammals and climatic changes in Eurasia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 238 (1): 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gentry, A.W. 2010. Bovidae. In Cenozoic Mammals from Africa, ed. L. Werdelin, and W.J. Sanders, 741–796. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gentry, A.W., and E.P.J. Heizmann. 1996. Miocene ruminants of central and eastern Tethys and Paratethys. In The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas, eds. R.L. Bernor, V. Fahlbush, and H.-W. Mittmann, 378–391. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Geraads, D., and N. Spassov. 2008. A new species of Criotherium (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Bulgaria. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences 43: 21–27.Google Scholar
  17. Gray, J.E. 1821. On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. The London Medical Repository Monthly Journal and Review 15: 296–310.Google Scholar
  18. Groves, C., and P. Grubb. 2011. Ungulate Taxonomy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  19. International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. 2005. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (5th edition). Hanover, Germany, Columbia, New York, Gent, Belgium, and Sapporo, Japan: International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature, 1–165.Google Scholar
  20. Jafarzadeh, R., D.S. Kostopoulos, and J. Daneshian. 2012. Skull reconstruction and ecology of Urmiatherium polaki (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the upper Miocene deposits of Maragheh, Iran. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 86 (1): 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaya, T.T., S. Mayda, D.S. Kostopoulos, M.C. Alcicek, G. Merceron, A. Tan, S. Karakütük, A.K. Giesler, and R.S. Scott. 2012. Şerefköy-2, a new late Miocene mammal locality from the Yatağan Formation, Muğla, SW Turkey. Comptes Rendus Palevol 11 (1): 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kingdon, J. 1982. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Köhler, M. 1987. Boviden des türkischen Miozäns (Känozoikum und Bräunkohlen der Türkei). Paleontologia i Evolucio 21: 133–246.Google Scholar
  24. Kostopoulos, D.S. 2009. The Late Miocene Mammal faunas of the Mytilinii basin, Samos Island, Greece: new collection. 14. Bovidae. Beiträge zur Paläontologie 31: 345–389.Google Scholar
  25. Kostopoulos, D.S. 2014. Taxonomic re-assessment and phylogenetic relationships of Miocene homonymously spiral-horned antelopes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59 (1): 9–29.Google Scholar
  26. Kostopoulos, D.S., and R.L. Bernor. 2011. The Maragheh bovids (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): Systematic revision and biostratigraphic-zoogeographic interpretation. Geodiversitas 33 (4): 649–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kostopoulos, D.S., and S. Karakütük. 2015. Late Miocene bovids from Şerefköy-2, SW Turkey, and their position within the sub-Paratethyan biogeographic province. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60 (1): 49–66.Google Scholar
  28. Koufos, G.D. 2006. Palaeoecology and chronology of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 234 (2): 127–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koufos, G.D. 2008. Carnivores from the early/middle Miocene locality of Antonios (Chalkidiki, Macedonia, Greece). Geobios 41 (3): 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koufos, G.D., and G.E. Syrides. 1997. A new Early/Middle Miocene mammal locality from Macedonia, Greece. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences-Series IIA-Earth and Planetary Science 325 (7): 511–516.Google Scholar
  31. Lazaridis, G. 2010. Contribution to the study of the Neogene Perissodactyls from Kryopigi (Kassandra, Chalkidiki, Greece). MSc Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1–365.Google Scholar
  32. Lazaridis, G. 2015. Study of the Late Miocene vertebrate locality of Kryopigi and other localities of Kassandra Peninsula, Chalkidiki (Greece). Systematics, Taphonomy, Paleoecology, Biochronology. PhD Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Scientific Annals of the School of Geology, 174: 350. Greece.Google Scholar
  33. Lazaridis, G., and E. Tsoukala. 2014a. Hipparion phlegrae, sp. nov. (Mammalia, Perissodactyla): a new species from the Turolian locality of Kryopigi (Kassandra, Chalkidiki, Greece). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34 (1): 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lazaridis, G., and E. Tsoukala. 2014b. Tetralophodon longirostris (Kaup, 1832) from Late Miocene of the Kassandra peninsula (Chalkidiki, Greece). Scientific Annals, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Special 102: 101.Google Scholar
  35. Liu, T., C. Li, and R. Zhai. 1978. Pliocene vertebrates of Lantian, Shensi. Professional Papers of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology 7: 149–200.Google Scholar
  36. Qiu, Z.-X., Z. Qiu, T. Deng, C. Li, Z. Zhang, B. Wang, and X.-M. Wang. 2013. Neogene land mammal stages/ages of China: Toward the goal to establish an Asian land mammal stage/age scheme. In Fossil Mammals of Asia. Neogene biostratigraphy and chronology eds. X. Wang, L.J. Flynn, and M. Fortelius, 29–90. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Qiu, Z.-X., B. Wang, and G. Xie. 2000. Preliminary report on a new genus of Ovibovinae from Hezheng district, Gansu. China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 38 (2): 131–140.Google Scholar
  38. Rodler, A. 1889. Über Urmiatherium polaki n. g., n. sp., einen neuen Sivatheriiden aus dem Knochenfelde von Maragha. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 56: 315–322.Google Scholar
  39. Schlosser, M. 1903. Die fossilen Säugethiere Chinas nebst einer Odontographie der recente Antilopen. Abhandlungen der mathematisch-physikalischen Klasse der königlich bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 22 (1): 1–221.Google Scholar
  40. Shi, Q. 2013. New species of Tsaidamotherium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from China sheds new light on the skull morphology and systematics of the genus. Science China Earth Sciences 57 (2): 258–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shi, Q., W.E.N. He, and S. Chen. 2014. A new species of Shaanxispira (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the upper Miocene of China. Zootaxa 3794 (4): 501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shi, Q., S.-Q. Wang, S.-K. Chen, and Y.-K. Li. 2016. The first discovery of Urmiatherium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Liushu Formation, Linxia Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 10: 319–331.Google Scholar
  43. Sickenberg, O. 1932. Eine neue Antilope, Parurmiatherium rugosifrons nov. gen. nov. sp., aus dem Unterpliozän von Samos. Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 1: 10–11.Google Scholar
  44. Sickenberg, O. 1933. Parurmiatherium rugosifrons ein neuer Bovide aus dem Unterpliozän von Samos. Palaeobiologica 5: 81–102.Google Scholar
  45. Syrides, G.E. 1990. Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and palaeogeographic study of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of Chalkidiki Peninsula, Macedonia, Greece. PhD thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Scientific Annals of the School of Geology, 11: 1–243.Google Scholar
  46. Tsoukala, E., and A. Bartsiokas. 2008. New Mesopithecus pentelicus specimens from Kryopigi, Macedonia, Greece. Journal of Human Evolution 54 (3): 448–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tsoukala, E., and J.K. Melentis. 1994. Deinotherium giganteum Kaup (Proboscidea) from Kassandra Peninsula (Chalkidiki, Macedonia, Greece). Geobios 27 (5): 633–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Der Made, J., T. Krakhmalnaya, and H. Kubiak. 1999. The pig Propotamochoeurs palaeochoerus from the upper Miocene of Grytsiv, Ukraine. Estudios geológicos 55 (5–6): 283–292.Google Scholar
  49. Vasileiadou, K.V., and G.D. Koufos. 2005. The micromammals from the early/middle Miocene locality of Antonios, Chalkidiki, Greece. Annales de paléontologie 91 (3): 197–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgios Lazaridis
    • 1
  • Dimitris S. Kostopoulos
    • 1
  • George Lyras
    • 2
  • Socrates Roussiakis
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Geology and Palaeontology, Department of GeologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece
  2. 2.Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Historical Geology and PalaeontologyNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations