, Volume 91, Issue 4, pp 473–496 | Cite as

Revision of some spiriferide and spiriferinide brachiopods from the historical type area of the Tournaisian stage (Carboniferous, southern Belgium)

  • Bernard MottequinEmail author
  • Eric Simon
Research Paper


Spiriferides, and to a lesser extent the spiriferinides, rank among the major elements of the Tournaisian brachiopod fauna from the mixed argillaceous–carbonate succession of the Tournai area (Hainaut sedimentation area, southern Belgium), along with productides (chonetidines and productidines) and athyridides. Based on well-preserved and silicified material from the Tournai Formation (Ivorian), representatives of the families Ambocoeliidae (Crurithyris goldfussiana), Strophopleuridae (Voiseyella roemeriana), Mucrospiriferidae (Tylothyris laminosa), and Cyrtinidae (Cyrtina koninckiana, C. sp. indet.) are described. Cyrtina hibernica is reported for the first time in the Visean of Visé (Visé Formation, Belgium). Biotic interactions between spiriferides and diverse organisms are illustrated, notably the diverse epizoans fixed on brachiopods (e.g., microconchids, cornulitids, crinoid holdfasts), single and multiple drill holes, and regeneration traces after predator attacks.


Spiriferida Spiriferinida Brachiopods Tournaisian Mississippian Belgium 


Spiriferiden, und in einem kleineren Ausmaß auch Spiriferiniden, gehören zu den Hauptelementen der Brachiopodenfauna des Tournaisiums aus einer gemischten Tonmergel-Karbonat Folge des Tournai-Gebietes (Hainaut-Sedimentationsgebiet, südliches Belgien), zusammen mit Productiden (Chonetidinen und Productidinen) sowie Athyrididen. Basierend auf gut erhaltenem und silifiziertem Material aus der Tournai-Formation (Ivorium) werden Vertreter der Familien Ambocoeliidae (Crurithyris goldfussiana), Strophopleuridae (Voiseyella roemeriana), Mucrospiriferidae (Tylothyris laminosa) und der Cyrtinidae (Cyrtina koninckiana, C. sp. indet.) beschrieben. Cyrtina hibernica wird erstmalig für das Viséum von Visé (Visé-Formation, Belgien) nachgewiesen. Biotische Interaktionen zwischen Spiriferiden und diversen Organismen werden aufgezeigt, vor allem die auf den Brachiopoden festgewachsenen diversen Epizoen (z. B. Microconchiden, Cornulitiden und Crinoiden-Haftorgane), einzelne und mehrfache Bohrlöcher sowie Regenerationsspuren nach räuberischen Attacken.


Spiriferida Spiriferinida Brachiopoden Tournaisium Mississippium Belgien 



The SEM images of the brachiopods were taken at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences at Brussels by Julien Cillis. Grateful thanks are due to Valentin Fischer (University of Liège) for lending specimens of the Dewalque collection and to Sylvain Charbonnier (Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris) for providing pictures of specimens of the d’Orbigny collection, respectively. We thank the reviewers (Ulrich Jansen and an anonymous one) for valuable comments on the manuscript and Mike Reich for his editorial help.

Supplementary material

12542_2017_359_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (152 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 152 kb)
12542_2017_359_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (131 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 131 kb)


  1. Ager, D.V. 1961. The epifauna of a Devonian spiriferid. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society London 117: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ager, D.V. 1967. Brachiopod palaeoecology. Earth-Science Reviews 3: 157–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez, F., and C.H.C. Brunton. 2000. A review of two de Koninck retzioid brachiopod species, and description of a new genus from the Carboniferous of Europe. Palaeontology 43: 817–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baliński, A. 1975. Secondary changes in micro-ornamentation of some Devonian amboecoeliid brachiopods. Palaeontology 18: 179–189.Google Scholar
  5. Baliński, A. 1993. A recovery from sublethal damage to the shell of a Devonian spiriferoid brachiopod. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 38: 111–118.Google Scholar
  6. Baliński, A., and Y. Sun. 2010. New paeckelmannelloidean spiriferids (Brachiopoda) from the early Mississippian of southern China. Special Papers in Palaeontology 84: 91–98.Google Scholar
  7. Bassett, M.G. 1984. Life strategies of Silurian brachiopods. Special Papers in Palaeontology 32: 237–263.Google Scholar
  8. Bassett, M.G., and C. Bryant. 2006. A Tournaisian brachiopod fauna from south-east Wales. Palaeontology 49: 485–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belanger, I., S. Delaby, B. Delcambre, P. Ghysel, M. Hennebert, M. Laloux, J.-M. Marion, B. Mottequin, and J.-L. Pingot. 2012. Redéfinition des unités structurales du front varisque utilisées dans le cadre de la nouvelle Carte géologique de Wallonie (Belgique). Geologica Belgica 15: 169–175.Google Scholar
  10. Boucot, A.J. 1959. Brachiopods of the Lower Devonian rocks at Highlands Mills, New York. Journal of Paleontology 33: 727–769.Google Scholar
  11. Boucot, A.J., and G.O. Poinar. 2010. Fossil behavior compendium. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branson, E.B. 1944. The geology of Missouri. The University of Missouri Studies 19: 1–535.Google Scholar
  13. Brunton, C.H.C. 1968. Silicified brachiopods from the Viséan of County Fermanagh (II). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History),Geology 16: 3–70.Google Scholar
  14. Brunton, C.H.C. 1976. Micro-ornamentation of some spiriferide brachiopods. Palaeontology 19: 767–771.Google Scholar
  15. Brunton, C.H.C. 1984. Silicified brachiopods from the Viséan of County Fermanagh, Ireland (III). Rhynchonellids, spiriferids and terebratulids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology 38: 27–130.Google Scholar
  16. Brunton, C.H.C., and C. Champion. 1974. A lower Carboniferous brachiopod fauna from the Manifold Valley, Staffordshire. Palaeontology 17: 811–840.Google Scholar
  17. Brunton, C.H.C., and A. Rissoné. 1976. Fusella M’Coy 1844, a problematic brachiopod genus from the Lower Carboniferous. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology 27: 275–284.Google Scholar
  18. Bublichenko, N.I. 1971. Lower Carboniferous brachiopods of the Rudny Altai (Tarkham Formation). Alma-Ata: Akademiia Nauka Kazakhskoi SSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, K.S.W. 1957. A lower Carboniferous brachiopod-coral fauna from New South Wales. Journal of Paleontology 31: 34–98.Google Scholar
  20. Carter, J.L. 1967. Mississippian brachiopods from the Chappel Limestone of central Texas. Bulletins of American Paleontology 53: 249–488.Google Scholar
  21. Carter, J.L. 1972. Two new genera of lamellose spiriferacean brachiopods. Journal of Paleontology 46: 729–734.Google Scholar
  22. Carter, J.L. 1974. New genera of spiriferid and brachythyridid brachiopods. Journal of Paleontology 48: 674–696.Google Scholar
  23. Carter, J.L. 1987. Lower Carboniferous brachiopods from the Banff Formation of western Alberta. Bulletin of Geological Survey of Canada 378: 1–183.Google Scholar
  24. Carter, J.L., and J.G. Johnson. 2006. Spiriferinida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Vol. 5, ed. R.L. Kaesler, 1877–1937. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  25. Carter, J.L., J.G. Johnson, R. Gourvennec, and H.-F. Hou. 2006. Spiriferida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Vol. 5, ed. R.L. Kaesler, 1689–1870. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  26. Carter, J.L., and R.C. Carter. 1970. Bibliography and index of North American Carboniferous brachiopods (1898–1968). The Geological Society of America, Memoir 128: 1–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carter, J.L., J.G. Johnson, R. Gourvennec, and H.-F. Hou. 1994. A revised classification of the spiriferid brachiopods (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida). Annals of Carnegie Museum 61: 327–338.Google Scholar
  28. Caster, K.E. 1930. High fossil faunas of the Upper Allegheny. Bulletins of American Paleontology 15: 145–316.Google Scholar
  29. Chen, Z.-Q., G.-R. Shi, and L.-P. Zhan. 2003. Early Carboniferous athyridid brachiopods from the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China. Journal of Paleontology 77: 844–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collinson, C., L.E. Becker, G.W. James, J.W. Koenig, and D.H. Swann. 1967. Devonian of the north-central region, United States. In International Symposium on the Devonian System, Calgary, 1967, Proceedings, vol. 1, ed. D.H. Oswald, 933–971. Calgary: Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists.Google Scholar
  31. Davidson, T. 1858–1863. A monograph of the British fossil Brachiopoda. Vol. II, Part V, Nos. 1–5. The Carboniferous Brachiopoda. London: Palaeontographical Society.Google Scholar
  32. Defrance, J.L.M. 1824. Calceola heteroclita. In Blainville, H.M., Mollusques. In Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Mollus-Morf, 32, ed. G. Cuvier, 306. Strasbourg, Paris: Levrault and Paris: Le Normant.Google Scholar
  33. Delépine, G. 1910. Etude sur le Calcaire carbonifère de Tournai. Annales de la Société géologique du Nord 39: 20–35.Google Scholar
  34. Delépine, G. 1911. Recherches sur le Calcaire carbonifère de la Belgique. Mémoires et travaux publiés par des professeurs des Facultés Catholiques de Lille 8: 1–419.Google Scholar
  35. Demanet, F. 1923. Le Waulsortien de Sosoye et ses rapports fauniques avec le Waulsortien d’âge Tournaisien supérieur. Mémoires de l’Institut géologique de l’Université de Louvain 2: 37–285.Google Scholar
  36. Demanet, F. 1931. Spiriferina peracuta de Koninck, espèce autonome, distincte de Spiriferina octoplicata Sowerby. Bulletin du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 7 (18): 1–22.Google Scholar
  37. Demanet, F. 1934. Les brachiopodes du Dinantien de la Belgique. Vol. 1, Atremata, Neotremata, Protremata (pars). Mémoires du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 61: 1–116.Google Scholar
  38. Demanet, F. 1958. Contribution à l’étude du Dinantien de la Belgique. Mémoires de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 141: 1–152.Google Scholar
  39. Dewalque, G. 1868. Prodrome d’une description géologique de la Belgique. Bruxelles and Liège: Libraire polytechnique De DecqGoogle Scholar
  40. Everlange-Witry, L.H. d'. 1780. Mémoire sur les fossiles du Tournaisis, et les pétrifications en général, relativement à leur utilité pour la vie civile. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale et Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 3: 15–44.Google Scholar
  41. Fleming, J. 1828. A history of British animals, exhibiting the descriptive characters and systematical arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and radiata of the United Kingdom. Edinburgh, London: Bell & Bradfute and James Duncan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Frederiks, G.N. 1911. Bemerkung über einige oberpalaeozoische Fossilien von Krasnoufimsk. Prilozhenie k protokolam” zasedanii Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorckom” Kazanskom” universitete 269: 1–12. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  43. Frederiks , G.N. 1926. Table for determination of the genera of the family Spiriferidae King. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Izvestiia (series 6) 20 (5–6): 393–422. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  44. Gaillard, C., M. Hennebert, and D. Olivero. 1999. Lower Carboniferous Zoophycos from the Tournai area (Belgium): environmental and ethologic significance. Geobios 32: 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. George, T.N. 1931. Ambocoelia Hall and certain similar British Spiriferidae. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 88: 30–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Godefroid, J. 2004. Recovery of the lectotype of Spirifer tornacensis de Koninck, 1883 (Tournaisian Brachiopoda). Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 76: 69–71.Google Scholar
  47. Godefroid, J., B. Mottequin, and E.L. Yochelson. 2006. Restudy of the Lower Carboniferous Scaphopoda described by de Koninck (1843, 1883). Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 76: 137–163.Google Scholar
  48. Gourvennec, R. 1989. Brachiopodes Spiriferida du Dévonien inférieur du Massif Armoricain. Systématique-Paléobiologie -Evolution-Biostratigraphie. Biostratigraphie du Paléozoïque 9: 1–281.Google Scholar
  49. Gourvennec, R., and J.L. Carter. 2007. Spiriferida and Spiriferinida. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Vol. 6, ed. R.L. Kaesler, 2772–2796. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  50. Grabau, A.W. 1931. The Brachiopoda, Part 2. Studies for students, I. Palaeontology. Science Quarterly of the National University of Peking 2: 397–422.Google Scholar
  51. Hance, L., E. Poty, and F.-X. Devuyst. 2001. Stratigraphie séquentielle du Dinantien type (Belgique) et corrélation avec le Nord de la France (Boulonnais, Avesnois). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 172: 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hance, L., E. Poty, and F.-X. Devuyst. 2006a. Tournaisian. Geologica Belgica 9: 47–53.Google Scholar
  53. Hance, L., E. Poty, and F.-X. Devuyst. 2006b. Viséan. Geologica Belgica 9: 55–62.Google Scholar
  54. Havlíček, V., and J. Vaněk. 1998. Pragian brachiopods, trilobites, and principal biofacies in the Prague Basin (Lower Devonian, Bohemia). Sborník geologických věd, Řada P, Paleontologie 34: 27–109.Google Scholar
  55. Hennebert, M. 1996. Précession climatique et excentricité dans le “Calcaire de Tournai” (Tournaisien supérieur, Carbonifère inférieur), Belgique. Compte rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris (série IIa) 322: 445–452.Google Scholar
  56. Hennebert, M., and P. Doremus. 1997a. Carte géologique de Wallonie à 1/25 000. Antoing–Leuze 37/7–8 (+notice explicative). Namur: Ministère de la Région Wallonne.Google Scholar
  57. Hennebert, M., and P. Doremus. 1997b. Carte géologique de Wallonie à 1/25 000. Hertain–Tournai 37/5–6 (+notice explicative). Namur: Ministère de la Région Wallonne.Google Scholar
  58. Hisinger, W. von. 1827. Gottland, geognostiskt beskrifvit. Kungliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar för år 1826: 311–337.Google Scholar
  59. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.Google Scholar
  60. Ivanova, E.A. 1972. Main features of spiriferid evolution (Brachiopoda). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1972 (3): 28–42. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  61. Johnson, J.G. 2006. Cyrtinoidea. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Vol. 5, ed. R.L. Kaesler, 1881–1883. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson, J.G., and H.-F. Hou. 2006. Delthyridoidea. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda Revised. Vol. 5, ed. R.L. Kaesler, 1825–1847. Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  63. Kesling, R.V., R.D. Hoare, and D.K. Sparks. 1980. Epizoans of the Middle Devonian brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri: their relationships to one another and to their host. Journal of Paleontology 54: 1141–1154.Google Scholar
  64. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1842–1844. Description des animaux fossiles qui se trouvent dans le terrain carbonifère de Belgique. Liège: H. Dessain.Google Scholar
  65. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1847. Monographie du genre Productus. Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège 4: 73–278.Google Scholar
  66. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1851. Description des animaux fossiles qui se trouvent dans le terrain carbonifère de Belgique. Supplément. Liège: H. Dessain.Google Scholar
  67. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1859. Liste des Brachiopodes carbonifères de Belgique, munis d’une spire, et des localités dans lesquelles ils se trouvent. In Davidson, Th. Mémoire sur les genres et les sous-genres des brachiopodes munis d’appendices spiraux et sur leurs espèces découvertes dans les couches carbonifères des Iles britannique; traduit et augmenté de notes par L. de Koninck. Liège: H. Dessain.Google Scholar
  68. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1883. Sur le Spirifer mosquensis et sur ses affinités avec quelques autres espèces du même genre. Bulletin du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 2: 371–395.Google Scholar
  69. Koninck, L.-G. de. 1887. Faune du calcaire carbonifère de la Belgique. Sixième partie: Brachiopodes. Annales du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 14: 1–154.Google Scholar
  70. Leeder, M.R. 1988. Recent developments in Carboniferous geology: a critical review with implications for the British Isles and NW, Europe. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 99: 73–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lees, A. 2006. Waulsortian. Geologica Belgica 9: 151–155.Google Scholar
  72. Legrand-Blain, M. 1995. Relations entre les domaines d’Europe occidentale, d’Europe méridionale (Montagne Noire) et d’Afrique du Nord à la limite Dévonien-Carbonifère: les données des brachiopodes. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie 103: 77–97.Google Scholar
  73. Lescinsky, H.L. 1997. Recruitment and competition on North American Carboniferous brachiopods. Journal of Paleontology 71: 34–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Léveillé, C. 1835. Aperçu géologique de quelques localités très riches en coquilles sur les frontières de France et de Belgique. Mémoires de la Société géologique de France 2: 29–40.Google Scholar
  75. Lewis, R.D., 1982. Holdfasts. In Echinoderm faunas from the Bromide Formation (Middle Formation) of Oklahoma, ed. J. Sprinkle. The University of Kansas, Paleontological Contributions, Monograph: 1: 57–64Google Scholar
  76. M’Coy, F. 1841. A catalogue of the Museum of the Geological Society of Dublin. Dublin: Hodges and Smith.Google Scholar
  77. M’Coy, F. 1844. A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous Limestone fossils of Ireland. London: Williams and Norgate.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maillieux, E. 1933. Terrains, roches et fossiles de la Belgique, deuxième édition. Brussels: Patrimoine du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique.Google Scholar
  79. Manceñido, M.O., and R. Gourvennec. 2008. A reappraisal of feeding current systems inferred for spire-bearing brachiopods. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth and Environmental Science 98: 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miller, S.A. 1881. Subcarboniferous fossils from the Lake Valley Mining district of New Mexico with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 4: 306–315.Google Scholar
  81. Mistiaen, B., D. Brice, M.L. Zapalski, and C. Loones. 2012. Brachiopods and their auloporid epibionts in the Devonian of Boulonnais (France): Comparison with other associations globally. In Earth and life. International Year of Planet Earth, ed. J. Talent, 159–188. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  82. Mortelmans, G. 1969. L’étage Tournaisien dans sa localité-type. Compte-Rendu du 6 e Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère, Sheffield 1967 1: 19–44.Google Scholar
  83. Mortelmans, G. 1973. Evolution paléoécologique et sédimentologique du Calcaire de Tournai: quelques lignes directrices. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 82: 141–180.Google Scholar
  84. Mortelmans, G., and P. Bourguignon. 1954. Le Dinantien. In Prodrome d’une description géologique de la Belgique, ed. P. Fourmarier, 217–321. Liège: Vaillant-Carmanne.Google Scholar
  85. Mottequin, B. 2008. New observations on Upper Devonian brachiopods from the Namur-Dinant Basin (Belgium). Geodiversitas 30: 455–537.Google Scholar
  86. Mottequin, B. 2010. Mississippian (Tournaisian) brachiopods from the Hook Head Formation, County Wexford (south-east Ireland). Special Papers in Palaeontology 84: 243–285.Google Scholar
  87. Mottequin, B., and D. Brice. 2016. Upper and uppermost Famennian (Devonian) brachiopods from north-western France (Avesnois) and southern Belgium. Geologica Belgica 19: 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mottequin, B., and M. Legrand-Blain. 2010. Late Tournaisian (Carboniferous) brachiopods from Mouydir (Central Sahara, Algeria). Geological Journal 45: 353–374.Google Scholar
  89. Mottequin, B., and G. Sevastopulo. 2009. Predatory boreholes in Tournaisian (Lower Carboniferous) spiriferid brachiopods. Lethaia 42: 274–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mottequin, B., and E. Simon. 2015. Diversity of athyridide brachiopods during the Late Devonian-Tournaisian in southern Belgium. Strata (série 1) 16: 103–104.Google Scholar
  91. Mottequin, B., D. Brice, and M. Legrand-Blain. 2014. Biostratigraphic significance of brachiopods near the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. Geological Magazine 151: 216–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mottequin, B., G. Sevastopulo, and E. Simon. 2015. Micromorph brachiopods from the late Asbian (Mississippian, Viséan) from northwest Ireland (Gleniff, County Sligo). Bulletin of Geosciences 90: 307–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mottequin, B., D. Brice, J.-M. Marion, and E. Simon. 2016. Plicathyridine brachiopods (Athyridida) from the Frasnian (Late Devonian) of Western Europe and Middle East. Geobios 49: 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mourlon, M. 1881. Géologie de la Belgique, vol. 2. Bruxelles: Hayez.Google Scholar
  95. Mourlon, M. 1908. Le Calcaire carbonifère et les dépôts post-primaires qui le recouvrent dans la vallée de l’Escaut, entre Tournai et Antoing. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie (procès-verbaux) 22: 89–105.Google Scholar
  96. Nalivkin, D.V. 1937. Brachiopoda of the Upper and Middle Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of northeastern Kazakhstan. Tsentral’nyi Nauchno-Issledovatel’skii Geologo-Razvedochnyi Institut (TSNIGRI)Trudy 99: 1–200. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  97. North, F.J. 1920. On Syringothyris Winchell and certain Carboniferous Brachiopoda referred to Spiriferina d’Orbigny. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 76: 162–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Omalius d'Halloy, J.J. d'. 1853. Abrégé de géologie. Bruxelles: A. Jamar; Paris: A. Mathias.Google Scholar
  99. Orbigny, A. d'. 1849. Prodrome de Paléontologie stratigraphique universelle des animaux mollusques et rayonnés faisant suite au cours élémentaire de paléontologie et de géologie stratigraphiques, vol. 1. Paris: Victor Masson.Google Scholar
  100. Pacaud, D. 2015. Catalogue des types de brachiopodes conservés dans les collections de Paléontologie du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle de Paris. Fossiles (Revue française de Paléontologie), hors-série 5: 82–98.Google Scholar
  101. Paul, H. 1937. Die Transgression der Viséstufe am Nordrande des Rheinischen Schiefergebirges. Abhandlungen der Königlich Preussischen geologischen Landesanstalt, Neue Folge 179: 1–117.Google Scholar
  102. Phillips, J. 1836. Illustrations of the geology of Yorkshire, Part 2. The mountain limestone district. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  103. Phillips, J. 1841. Figures and descriptions of the Palaeozoic fossils of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset. Geological Survey of Great Britain, Memoir 1: 1–231.Google Scholar
  104. Pitrat, C. W. 1965. Spiriferidina. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda. Vol. 2, ed. R.C. Moore, 667–728. New York and Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  105. Poty, E. 1997. Devonian and Carboniferous tectonics in the eastern and southern part of the Brabant Massif (Belgium). Aardkundige Mededelingen, Leuven University Press 8: 143–144.Google Scholar
  106. Poty, E. 2016. The Dinantian (Mississippian) succession of southern Belgium and surrounding areas: stratigraphy improvement and inferred climate reconstruction. Geologica Belgica 19: 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Poty, E., L. Hance, A. Lees, and M. Hennebert. 2002. Dinantian lithostratigraphic units (Belgium). Geologica Belgica 4: 69–94.Google Scholar
  108. Poty, E., F.-X. Devuyst, and L. Hance. 2006. Late Devonian and Mississippian foraminiferal and rugose coral zonations of Belgium and Northern France, a tool for Eurasian correlations. Geological Magazine 143: 829–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Poty, E., M. Aretz, and L. Hance. 2014. Belgian substages as a basis for an international chronostratigraphic division of the Tournaisian and Viséan. Geological Magazine 151: 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Roberts, J. 1964. Lower Carboniferous brachiopods from Greenhills, New South Wales. Geological Society of Australia, Journal 11: 173–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rodriguez, J., and R.C. Gutschick. 1968. Productina, Cyrtina, and Dielasma (Brachiopoda), from the Lodgepole Limestone (Mississippian) of southwestern Montana. Journal of Paleontology 42: 1027–1032.Google Scholar
  112. Ryckholt, P. de. 1851. Mélanges paléontologiques, première partie. Mémoires couronnés des Savants étrangers de l’Académie royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique 24: 1–176.Google Scholar
  113. Rogers, F.S., and C.W. Pitrat. 1987. Distribution of Tylothyris (Brachiopoda) and its occurrence in the Traverse Group (Middle Devonian). Journal of Paleontology 61: 494–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rowley, R.R. 1893. Description of some new species of crinoids, blastoids, and brachiopods from the Devonian and sub-Carboniferous rocks of Missouri. American Geologist 12: 303–309.Google Scholar
  115. Rudwick, M.J.S. 1970. Living and fossil Brachiopods. London: Hutchinson University Library.Google Scholar
  116. Sanders, J.E., 1958. Brachiopoda and Pelecypoda. In Easton, W.H., J.E. Sanders, J.B. Knight, and A.K. Miller, Mississippian fauna in the northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections 119: 41–72Google Scholar
  117. Sartenaer, P., and G. Plodowski. 1996. Restatement of the late Tournaisian Spirifer tornacensis de Koninck, 1883 on the base of the original collection. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 66: 53–71.Google Scholar
  118. Sergunkova, O.I. 1937. Brachiopods from the Lower Tournaisian and Etroeungtian beds in the western part of the Talassic Alatau Range (Tian-Shan). Tashkent: Publications of the Scientific Committee Uzbekistan SSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  119. Sherborn, C.D. 1930. Index animalium; sive, Index nominum quae ab A. D. MDCCLVIII generibus et speciebus animalium imposita sunt. Section 2. Part 22. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  120. Sherborn, C.D. 1931. Index animalium; sive, Index nominum quae ab A. D. MDCCLVIII generibus et speciebus animalium imposita sunt. Section 2. Part 27. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  121. Shiino, Y., and L. Angiolini. 2014. Hydrodynamic advantages in the free-living spiriferinide brachiopod Pachycyrtella omanensis: functional insight into adaptation to high-energy flow environments. Lethaia 47: 216–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shumard, B.F. 1855. Description of a geological section on the Mississippi River, from St. Louis to Commerce. Geological Survey of Missouri, Annual Reports 1–2 (2): 137–208.Google Scholar
  123. Simorin, A.M. 1949. Brachiopody Karagandinskogo basseyna. Alma-Ata: Izdatel”stvo Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoy (in Russian).Google Scholar
  124. Simpson, G.B. 1889. Descriptions of new species of fossils from the Clinton, Lower Helderberg, Chemung, and Waverly groups, found in the collections of the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 16 (3): 435–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sowerby, J. 1818–1821. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain, Vol. 3. London: published by the author.Google Scholar
  126. Sowerby, J. de C. 1840. Explanation of the plates and woodcuts. In Sedgwick, A. and R.I. Murchison, On the physical structure and older stratified deposits of Devonshire. Transactions of the Geological Society of London (2nd series) 5: 633–703.Google Scholar
  127. Stehli, F.G. 1954. Lower Leonardian Brachiopoda of the Sierra Diablo. American Museum of natural History Bulletin 105: 263–358.Google Scholar
  128. Sun, Y., and A. Baliński. 2011. Silicified Mississippian brachiopods from Muhua, southern China: Rhynchonellides, athyridides, spiriferides, spiriferinides, and terebratulides. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56: 793–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tyler, C.L., L.R. Leighton, S.J. Carlson, J.W. Huntley, and M. Kowalewski. 2013. Predation on modern and fossil brachiopods: assessing chemical defenses and palatability. Palaios 28: 724–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vandercammen, A., and I. Vandercammen-Goffinet. 1970. Liste des types du sous-ordre des Spiriferidina Waagen, W.1883 (Brachiopoda) conservés à l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 46 (38): 1–87.Google Scholar
  131. Vaughan, A. 1915. Correlation of Dinantian and Avonian. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 71: 1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Veevers, J.J. 1959. The type species of Productella, Emanuella, Crurithyris and Ambocoelia (Brachiopoda). Journal of Paleontology 33: 902–908.Google Scholar
  133. Vinn, O. 2010. Adaptive strategies in the evolution of encrusting tentaculitoid tubeworms. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 292: 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Waagen, W.H. 1883. Salt Range Fossils. I. Productus-Limestone Fossils. Geological Survey of India, Memoirs, Palaeontologia Indica (series 13) 4 (2): 391–546.Google Scholar
  135. Weller, S. 1899. Kinderhook faunal studies. 1. The fauna of the Vermicular Sandstone at Northview, Webster County, Missouri. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St Louis 9: 9–51.Google Scholar
  136. Weller, S. 1914. The Mississippian brachiopoda of the Mississippi Valley Basin. Illinois State Geological Survey Monograph 1: 1–508.Google Scholar
  137. Williams, A. 1960. Feeding mechanisms of spire-bearing brachiopods. Geological Magazine 97: 514–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Winkler Prins, C.F., and M.R.W. Amler. 2006. Brachiopoden. In Stratigraphie von Deutschland VI —Unterkarbon (Mississippium), ed. Deutsche Stratigraphische Kommission (Koordination und Redaktion: M.R.W. Amler und D. Stoppel für die Subkommission Karbon). Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften 41: 89–100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, O.D. Earth and History of LifeBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations