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PalZ

, Volume 91, Issue 4, pp 473–496 | Cite as

Revision of some spiriferide and spiriferinide brachiopods from the historical type area of the Tournaisian stage (Carboniferous, southern Belgium)

  • Bernard MottequinEmail author
  • Eric Simon
Research Paper

Abstract

Spiriferides, and to a lesser extent the spiriferinides, rank among the major elements of the Tournaisian brachiopod fauna from the mixed argillaceous–carbonate succession of the Tournai area (Hainaut sedimentation area, southern Belgium), along with productides (chonetidines and productidines) and athyridides. Based on well-preserved and silicified material from the Tournai Formation (Ivorian), representatives of the families Ambocoeliidae (Crurithyris goldfussiana), Strophopleuridae (Voiseyella roemeriana), Mucrospiriferidae (Tylothyris laminosa), and Cyrtinidae (Cyrtina koninckiana, C. sp. indet.) are described. Cyrtina hibernica is reported for the first time in the Visean of Visé (Visé Formation, Belgium). Biotic interactions between spiriferides and diverse organisms are illustrated, notably the diverse epizoans fixed on brachiopods (e.g., microconchids, cornulitids, crinoid holdfasts), single and multiple drill holes, and regeneration traces after predator attacks.

Keywords

Spiriferida Spiriferinida Brachiopods Tournaisian Mississippian Belgium 

Kurzfassung

Spiriferiden, und in einem kleineren Ausmaß auch Spiriferiniden, gehören zu den Hauptelementen der Brachiopodenfauna des Tournaisiums aus einer gemischten Tonmergel-Karbonat Folge des Tournai-Gebietes (Hainaut-Sedimentationsgebiet, südliches Belgien), zusammen mit Productiden (Chonetidinen und Productidinen) sowie Athyrididen. Basierend auf gut erhaltenem und silifiziertem Material aus der Tournai-Formation (Ivorium) werden Vertreter der Familien Ambocoeliidae (Crurithyris goldfussiana), Strophopleuridae (Voiseyella roemeriana), Mucrospiriferidae (Tylothyris laminosa) und der Cyrtinidae (Cyrtina koninckiana, C. sp. indet.) beschrieben. Cyrtina hibernica wird erstmalig für das Viséum von Visé (Visé-Formation, Belgien) nachgewiesen. Biotische Interaktionen zwischen Spiriferiden und diversen Organismen werden aufgezeigt, vor allem die auf den Brachiopoden festgewachsenen diversen Epizoen (z. B. Microconchiden, Cornulitiden und Crinoiden-Haftorgane), einzelne und mehrfache Bohrlöcher sowie Regenerationsspuren nach räuberischen Attacken.

Schlüsselwörter

Spiriferida Spiriferinida Brachiopoden Tournaisium Mississippium Belgien 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The SEM images of the brachiopods were taken at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences at Brussels by Julien Cillis. Grateful thanks are due to Valentin Fischer (University of Liège) for lending specimens of the Dewalque collection and to Sylvain Charbonnier (Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris) for providing pictures of specimens of the d’Orbigny collection, respectively. We thank the reviewers (Ulrich Jansen and an anonymous one) for valuable comments on the manuscript and Mike Reich for his editorial help.

Supplementary material

12542_2017_359_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (152 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 152 kb)
12542_2017_359_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (131 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 131 kb)

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© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, O.D. Earth and History of LifeBrusselsBelgium

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