Advertisement

PalZ

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 353–373 | Cite as

The oldest bryozoans of Baltoscandia from the lowermost Floian (Ordovician) of north-western Russia: two new rare, small and simple species of Revalotrypidae

  • Petr V. Fedorov
  • Anna V. Koromyslova
  • Silviu O. Martha
Research Paper

Abstract

We describe two new species of esthonioporate bryozoans, Revalotrypa inopinata sp. nov. and R. yugaensis sp. nov., from the Lower Ordovician, south-east of Lake Ladoga, north-western Russia. The colonies of the two species are very small and were extracted from limestone nodules found in the lower part of glauconitic sandstone in the Joa Member (lowermost Floian). Revalotrypa inopinata sp. nov. and R. yugaensis sp. nov. are the oldest known bryozoans from Baltoscandia. Study of the two species includes scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT). The palaeogeographic distribution of the oldest known bryozoans from the Lower Ordovician and the advantages and disadvantages of micro-CT for the study of Palaeozoic bryozoans are discussed. The authorship of Revalotrypidae, which has been inconsistently allocated in the literature, is discussed.

Keywords

Bryozoa Esthonioporata Taxonomy Ordovician Floian Micro-CT 

Kurzfassung

Wir beschreiben zwei neue Arten esthonioporater Bryozoen (Revalotrypa inopinata sp. nov. und R. yugaensis sp. nov.) aus dem Unter-Ordovizium südöstlich des Ladoga-Sees im Nordwesten Russlands. Die Kolonien der beiden Bryozoenarten sind sehr klein und wurden aus Kalksteinknollen extrahiert, die im unteren Bereich von Glaukonitsanden der Joa-Einheit (unterstes Floium) gefunden worden sind. R. inopinata sp. nov. und R. yugaensis sp. nov. sind die ältesten bekannten Bryozoen Balto-Skandinaviens. Die beiden Arten wurde mit dem Rasterelektronenmikroskop (REM) und der Röntgen-Mikro-Computertomographie (Micro-CT) untersucht. Die paläogeographische Verbreitung der ältesten bekannten Bryozoen aus dem Unter-Ordovizium sowie die Vor- und Nachteile von Micro-CT für die Untersuchung paläozoischer Bryozoen wird diskutiert. Die in der Literatur bisher uneinheitlich gehandhabte Autorenschaft der Revalotrypidae wird ebenso diskutiert.

Schlüsselwörter

Bryozoa Esthonioporata Taxonomie Ordovizium Floium Micro-CT 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Alexandr Alekseev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow), Andrej Ernst (Uni Hamburg), Dennis P. Gordon (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington), Joachim Scholz (Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum, Frankfurt) and Paul D. Taylor (Natural History Museum, London) are thanked for advice regarding the authorship of Revalotrypidae. Andrej Ernst, Paul D. Taylor and the editor-in-chief Mike Reich (Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, München) are also thanked for helpful reviews and comments on the manuscript. The third author (S.O.M.) gratefully acknowledges financial support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Project SCHO 581/12–1 “Enhancing documentation and digitalization of the Bryozoa collection donated by Professor Voigt (1905–2004) to the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main, Germany”).

References

  1. Adachi, N., Y. Ezaki, and J. Liu. 2012. The oldest bryozoan reefs: a unique Early Ordovician skeletal framework construction: oldest bryozoan framework construction. Lethaia 45 (1): 14–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2011.00268.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astrova, G.G. 1964. O нoвoм oтpядe пaлeoзoйcкиx мшaнoк [A new order of Paleozoic Bryozoa]. Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 2: 22–31. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Astrova, G.G. 1965. Mopфoлoгия, иcтopия paзвития и cиcтeмa opдoвикcкиx и cилypийcкиx мшaнoк [Morphology, history of development, and systematics of Ordovician and Silurian Bryozoa]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 106: 1–432. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Astrova, G.G. 1978. Иcтopия paзвития, cиcтeмa и филoгeния мшaнoк. Oтpяд Trepostomata [Historical development, systematics and phylogeny of Bryozoa. Order Trepostomata]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 169: 1–240. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Balashova, Y.A. 1966. Trilobites of the Lower Ordovician deposits of the Russian Platform. Voprosy paleontologii 5: 3–22. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  6. Bassler, R.S. 1911. The Early Paleozoic Bryozoa of the Baltic Provinces. United States National Museum Bulletin 77: 1–382.Google Scholar
  7. Bassler, R.S. 1952. Taxonomic notes on genera of fossil and recent Bryozoa. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 42 (12): 381–385.Google Scholar
  8. Bergström, S.M., A. Löfgren, and J. Maletz. 2004. The GSSP of the second (upper) stage of the Lower Ordovician series: Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, Province of Västergötland, southwestern Sweden. Episodes 27 (4): 265–272.Google Scholar
  9. Bergström, S.M., X. Chen, J.C. Gutiérrez-Marco, and A. Dronov. 2009. The new chronostratigraphic classification of the Ordovician system and its relations to major regional series and stages and to δ13C chemostratigraphy. Lethaia 42 (1): 97–107. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00136.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boardman, R.S. 1983. General features of the Class Stenolaemata. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, G, Bryozoa, Revized (1), ed. R.A. Robinson, 49–137. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  11. Borg, F. 1926. Studies on Recent cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Zoologiska Bidrag från Uppsala 10: 181–507.Google Scholar
  12. Buge, É. 1949. Solution de problèmes bryozoologiques à l’aide des rayons X. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e Série 21: 160–163.Google Scholar
  13. Buttler, C.J., I.A. Rahman, and B. Slater. 2012. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a Lower Palaeozoic trepostome bryozoan. In Newsletter, Abstracts Annual Meeting, 2012, p. 62, ed. Palaeontological Association. Dublin: University College Dublin.Google Scholar
  14. Buttler, C.J., P.N. Wyse Jackson, A. Ernst, and F.K. McKinney. 2013. A review of the Early Palaeozoic biogeography of bryozoans. Geological Society of London, Memoirs 38: 145–155. doi: 10.1144/M38.12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carrera, M.G., and A. Ernst. 2010. Darriwilian bryozoans from the San Juan Formation (Ordovician). Argentine Precordillera. Ameghiniana 47 (3): 343–354. doi: 10.5710/AMGH.v47i3.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cobbold, E.S. 1931. Additional fossils from the Cambrian rocks of Comley, Shropshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 87 (1–4): 459–512. doi: 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1931.087.01-04.17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cobbold, E.S., and R.P. Pocock. 1934. The Cambrian area of Rushton (Shropshire). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 223: 305–409. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1934.0008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper, R.A., and P.M. Sadler. 2012. The Ordovician Period. In The Geologic Time Scale 2012, ed. F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg, M.D. Schmitz, and G.M. Ogg, 489–523. Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cuffey, R.J., X. Chuantao, Z. Zhu, N. Spjeldnæs, and Z.-X. Hu. 2013. The world’s oldest known bryozoan reefs: Late Tremadocian, mid-Early Ordovician; Yichang, central China. In Bryozoan Studies 2010, ed. A. Ernst, P. Schäfer, and J. Scholz, 13–27. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Decker, C.E. 1935. The graptolites of the Simpson Group of Oklahoma. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America 21 (5): 239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dronov, A.V., Y.V. Savitsky, P.V. Fedorov, and E.A. Tsyganova. 1996. Detailed lithostratigraphy of the Ordovician Lower Volkhovian limestone along the eastern part of the Baltic-Ladoga Glint, northwestern Russia. GFF 118 (1): 19–24. doi: 10.1080/11035899609546226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dybowski, W. 1877. Die Chaetetiden der Ostbaltischen Silur-Formation. Verhandlungen der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg 2: 1–134.Google Scholar
  23. Dzik, J. 1981. Evolutionary relationships of the early Palaeozoic “cyclostomatous” Bryozoa. Palaeontology 24 (4): 827–861.Google Scholar
  24. Ehrenberg, C.G. 1831. Symbolæ physicæ, seu icones et descriptiones animalium evertebratorum, sepositis insectis, quae ex itineribus per Libyam, Egyptum, Nubiam, Dongalam, Syriam, Arabiam et Habessiniam publico institutis sumptu Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich et Christiano Godofredi Ehrenberg medicinae et chirurgiae doctorum, studio annis MDCCCXX–MDCCCXXV redierunt. Berlin: G. ReimeriGoogle Scholar
  25. Eichwald, E. 1829. Zoologia specialis, quam expositis animalibus tum vivis, tum fossilibus potissimum Rossiae in universum, et Poloniae in specie, in usum lectionum publicarum in Universitate caesarea Vilnensi, tom 1. Vilnae: Typis Josephi Zawadski.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eichwald, E. 1856. Beitrag zur geographischen Verbreitung der fossilen Thiere Russlands. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 29: 88–127.Google Scholar
  27. Eichwald, E. 1860. Lethaea Rossica ou Paléontologie de la Russie. Première Section de l’ancienne période, contenant la flore de l’ancienne période et la faune jusqu’aux mollusques. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.Google Scholar
  28. Elias, M.K. 1954. Cambroporella and Coeloclema, Lower Cambrian and Ordovician bryozoans. Journal of Paleontology 28 (1): 52–58.Google Scholar
  29. Ernst, A., O.K. Bogolepova, B. Hubmann, E.Y. Golubkova, and A.P. Gubanov. 2014. Dianulites (Trepostomata, Bryozoa) from the Early Ordovician of Severnaya Zemlya. Arctic Russia. Geological Magazine 151 (2): 328–338. doi: 10.1017/S0016756813000150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ernst, A., A. Jiménez-Sánchez, and L. Baidder. 2015. Bryozoan fauna of the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of Alnif Morocco. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 95 (4): 537–553. doi: 10.1007/s12549-015-0208-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ernst, A., and A. Munnecke. 2009. A Hirnantian (Latest Ordovician) reefal bryozoan fauna from Anticosti Island, eastern Canada: taxonomy and chemostratigraphy. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 46 (3): 207–229. doi: 10.1139/E09-017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ershova, V. B. 2008. Condensed deposits of the Varangu and Latorp Regional Stages (Lower Ordovician) of the Russian part of the Baltic-Ladoga Klint. Unpublished PhD thesis, St. Petersburg State University, 1–203. St. Petersburg. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  33. Ethington, R.L., and D.L. Clark. 1981. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Ibex Area, Western Millard County, Utah. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 28 (2): 1–160.Google Scholar
  34. Fedorov, P.V., and V.B. Ershova. 2012. Significance of detailed litho-stratigraphical studies for reconstruction of history and paleogeography of ancient epeiric seas. In Leningrad school of lithology. Materials of All-Russian meeting of lithology dedicated to the 100th anniversary of L.B. Rukhin (St.-Petersburg, 25–29 September 2012), 1st ed, ed. T.A. Sitnikov, M.V. Platonov, M.A. Tugarova, A.I. Brusnizyn, A.E. Rybalko, and A.V. Lalomov, 258–260. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  35. Fritz, M.A. 1947. Cambrian Bryozoa. Journal of Paleontology 21 (5): 434–435.Google Scholar
  36. Fritz R.D., P. Medlock, M.J. Kuykendall, and J.L. Wilson. 2012. The geology of the Arbuckle Group in the Midcontinent: Sequence stratigraphy, reservoir development, and the potential for hydrocarbon exploration. In The great American carbonate bank: The geology and economic resources of the CambrianOrdovician Sauk megasequence of Laurentia, eds. J.R. Derby, R.D. Fritz, S.A. Longacre, W.A. Morgan, and C.A. Sternbach, 203–274. [AAPG Memoir 98].Google Scholar
  37. Gorjunova, R.V. 1986a. Paннeopдoвикcкиe мшaнки: иx cиcтeмaтичecкий cocтaв и pacпpocтpaнeниe [Early Ordovician bryozoans: Their systematic composition and distribution]. In VII Vsesoyuznyiy kollokvium po sovremennyim i iskopaemyim mshankam. Tezisy dokladov, ed. R.V. Gorjunova, 15–16. Moscow: Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  38. Gorjunova, R.V. 1986b. Пpoиcxoждeниe и paнняя дивepгeнция cтeнoлeмaт [Origin and early divergence of stenolaemates]. In VII Vsesoyuznyiy kollokvium po sovremennyim i iskopaemyim mshankam. Tezisy dokladov, ed. I.P. Morozova, 16–18. Moscow: Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  39. Gorjunova, R.V. 1986c. Пpoиcxoждeниe и paнняя дивepгeнция мшaнoк [The origin and early divergence of bryozoans]. Byulleten’ Moskovskogo obschestva ispyitateley prirody. Otdel geologicheskiy 61: 119. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  40. Gorjunova, R.V. 1988. O cиcтeмaтичecкoм пoлoжeнии poдa Revalotrypa (Bryozoa) [On the systematic position of the genus Revalotrypa (Bryozoa)]. Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 2: 31–36. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  41. Gorjunova, R.V. 1992. Mopфoлoгия и cиcтeмa пaлeoзoйcкиx мшaнoк [Morphology and Taxonomic System of Paleozoic Bryozoans]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk 251: 1–168. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  42. Gorjunova, R.V. 1996a. Филoгeния пaлeoзoйcкиx мшaнoк [Phylogeny of Paleozoic Bryozoans]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk 267: 1–165. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  43. Gorjunova, R.V. 1996b. Poд Hinaclema и eгo пoлoжeниe в cиcтeмe пaлeoзoйcкиx мшaнoк [The genus Hinaclema and its position in the system of Paleozoic bryozoans]. Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 38: 38–44. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  44. Gorjunova, R.V. 2009. Evolution of the colonial growth habit in the Ordovician bryozoans of the class Stenolaemata: feeding adaptations (Leningrad Region, Russia). Paleontological Journal 43 (11): 1390–1405. doi: 10.1134/S0031030109110045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gorjunova, R.V., and A.V. Koromyslova. 2008. A new genus of the Arenigian bryozoans, Lynnopora, and its systematic position in the family Revalotrypidae Gorjunova, 1988. Paleontological Journal 42 (5): 491–499. doi: 10.1134/S0031030108050043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gorjunova, R.V., and V.D. Lavrentjeva. 1993. Mopфoлoгия и cиcтeмa кpиптocтoмидныx мшaнoк [Morphology and Taxonomic System of Cryptostome Bryozoans]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Rossijskoj Akademii Nauk 257: 1–151. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  47. Hampton, G.L. 1979. Stratigraphy and archaeocyathans of Lower Cambrian strata of Old Douglas Mountain, Stevens County, Washington. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 26: 27–49.Google Scholar
  48. Hinds, R.W. 1970. Ordovician Bryozoa from the Pogonip Group of Millard County, western Utah. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 17: 19–40.Google Scholar
  49. Hu, Z.-X., and N. Spjeldnæs. 1991. Early Ordovician bryozoans from China. In Bryozoaires actuels et fossiles: Bryozoa living and fossil. Articles présentés à la 8e Conférence Internationale sur les Bryozoaires, Paris, 1989: Papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Bryozoa, Paris, 1989, ed. F. Bigey, 179–185. Nantes: Société des Sciences Naturelles de l’Ouest de la France.Google Scholar
  50. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1985. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third edition adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences/Code International de Nomenclature Zoologique. Troisième edition adopté par la XXe Assemblée Générale de l’Union Internationale des Sciences Biologiques. 3rd ed. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th ed, 306. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.Google Scholar
  52. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2012. Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys 219: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ivantsov, A.Y. 2003. Ordovician trilobites of the subfamily Asaphinae of the Ladoga Glint. Paleontological Journal 37 (Suppl. 3): 229–337.Google Scholar
  54. Jaanusson, V. 1973. Aspects of carbonate sedimentation in the Ordovician of Baltoscandia. Lethaia 6 (1): 11–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.1973.tb00871.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jiang, Z.W. 1982. Bryozoa. In The Sinian–Cambrian boundary in eastern Yunnan, China, 202nd ed, ed. H.L. Luo, Z.W. Jiang, X.C. Wu, X.L. Song, and L. Ouyang. Yunnan: People’s Publishing House of Yunnan.Google Scholar
  56. Kanygin, A.V., A.M. Obut, and K.N. Volkova. 1984. Ordovician of the Siberian Platform. Paleontological Atlas. Trudy instituta geologii i geophiziki Akademii nauk SSSR. Sibirskoe otdelenie, 590th ed, 1–152. Novosibirsk: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  57. Kanygin, A.V., A.G. Vadrenkina, A.V. Timokhin, O.V. Sychev, and TYu. Tolmacheva. 2010. Ordovician of the Siberian Platform. Special Paper of the Geological Society of America 466: 105–117. doi: 10.1130/2010.2466(07).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klicpera, A., P.D. Taylor, and H. Westphal. 2013. Bryoliths constructed by bryozoans in symbiotic associations with hermit crabs in a tropical heterozoan carbonate system, Golfe d’Arguin Mauritania. Marine Biodiversity 43 (4): 429–444. doi: 10.1007/s12526-013-0173-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kobluk, D.R. 1984. Archaeotrypa Fritz, 1947 (Cambrian, Problematica) reinterpreted. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 21 (11): 1343–1348. doi: 10.1139/e84-140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koren, T.N., T.Y. Tolmacheva, R.F. Sobolevskaya, E.G. Raevskaya, and O.T. Obut. 2006. Ordovician System. In Zonalnaja stratigraphija phanerozoja Rossii, ed. T.N. Koren, 31–47. St. Petersburg: Vserossiyskiy Nauchno-issledovatelskiy Geologicheskiy Institut. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  61. Koromyslova, A.V. 2011. Bryozoans of the Latorp and Volkhov horizons (Lower-Middle Ordovician) of the Leningrad Region. Paleontological Journal 45 (8): 887–980. doi: 10.1134/S0031030111080028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koromyslova, A.V., P.V. Fedorov, and V.B. Ershova. 2009. New records of bryozoans from the Lower Ordovician of the Leningrad Region and intercolonial variability in Esthoniopora lessnikowae (Modzalevskaya). Paleontological Journal 43 (2): 153–161. doi: 10.1134/S0031030109020051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Koromyslova, A.V., and A.V. Pakhnevich. 2016. New species of Pachydermopora Gordon, 2002 and Beisselina Canu, 1913 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomida) from a Campanian erratic block (Belarus) and their micro-CT investigation. Paleontological Journal 50 (1): 41–53. doi: 10.1134/S0031030116010044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lamansky, V.V. 1905. The oldest strata of Silurian deposits in Russia. Trudy Geologicheskogo Komiteta Novaya seriya 20: 1–203. (in Russian, German resume).Google Scholar
  65. Landing, E., J.B. Antcliffe, M.D. Brasier, and A.B. English. 2015. Distinguishing Earth’s oldest known bryozoan (Pywackia, Late Cambrian) from pennatulacean octocorals (Mesozoic–Recent). Journal of Paleontology 89 (2): 292–317. doi: 10.1017/jpa.2014.26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landing, E., A. English, and J.D. Keppie. 2010. Cambrian origin of all skeletalized metazoan phyla–Discovery of Earth’s oldest bryozoans (Upper Cambrian, southern Mexico). Geology 38 (6): 547–550. doi: 10.1130/G30870.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Larwood, G.P., and P.D. Taylor. 1979. Early structural and ecological diversification in the Bryozoa. In The Origin of major invertebrate groups, ed. M.R. House, 209–234. Systematics Association Special Volume 12. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  68. Litherland, M. 1975. Organic remains and traces from the Dalradian of Benderloch. Argyll. Scottish Journal of Geology 11 (1): 47–50. doi: 10.1144/sjg11010047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ma, J.Y., C.J. Buttler, and P.D. Taylor. 2014a. Cladistic analysis of the “trepostome” suborder Esthonioporina and the systematics of Palaeozoic bryozoans. In Bryozoan Studies 2013: proceedings of the 16th International Bryozoology Association Conference, Catania, Sicily, eds. A. Rosso, P.N., Wyse Jackson, and J. Porter, 153–161. Studi Trentini Di Scienze Naturali 94. Trento: Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali.Google Scholar
  70. Ma, J.-Y., P.D. Taylor, and F.-S. Xia. 2014b. New observations on the skeletons of the earliest bryozoans from the Fenhsiang Formation (Tremadocian, Lower Ordovician), Yichang China. Palaeoworld 23 (1): 25–30. doi: 10.1016/j.palwor.2013.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ma, J.-Y., P.D. Taylor, F.-S. Xia, and R.-B. Zhan. 2015. The oldest known bryozoan: Prophyllodictya (Cryptostomata) from the lower Tremadocian (Lower Ordovician) of Liujiachang, south-western Hubei, central China. Palaeontology 58 (5): 925–934. doi: 10.1111/pala.12189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Markovsky, V.A., and A.A. Makarjev. 1982. Opдoвикcкиe oтлoжeния apxипeлaгa Ceвepнaя Зeмля [Ordovician deposits of the Severnaja Zemlja archipelago]. In Geologija archipelaga Severnaja Zemlya, ed. V.Y. Kaban’kov, and N.P. Lazarenko, 22–39. Leningrad: Sevmorgeologia Ministry of Geology of the USSR. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  73. Martha, S.O., B. Ruthensteiner, P.D. Taylor, G. Hillmer, and K. Matsuyama. 2017. Description of a new cyclostome species from the middle Santonian of Germany using micro-computed tomography. Australasian Palaeontological Memoirs. (in press).Google Scholar
  74. Matsuyama, K., J. Titschack, D. Baum, and A. Freiwald. 2015. Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy. Zootaxa 4020 (1): 81–100. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4020.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Männil, R.M. 1959. Boпpocы cтpaтигpaфии и мшaнки opдoвикa Эcтoнии [Questions of stratigraphy and bryozoans of the Ordovician of Estonia]. Unpublished PhD thesis, 1–852. Akademiya nauk Estonskoj SSR: Tallinn. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  76. Männil, R.M. 1966. Evolution of the Baltic Basin during the Ordovician. Tallin: Valgus. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  77. McLeod, J.D. 1978. The oldest bryozoans: new evidence from the Early Ordovician. Science 200 (4343): 771–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Modzalevskaya, E.A. 1953. Tpeпocтoмaты opдoвикa Пpибaлтики и иx cтpaтигpaфичecкoe знaчeниe [Ordovician trepostomes of the Baltic Sea Region and their stratigraphic significance]. Trudy Vsesojuznogo neftyanogo nauchno-issledovatelskogo geologorazvedochnogo instituta Novaja serija 78: 91–196. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  79. Modzalevskaya, E.A. 1986. Mшaнки ceмeйcтвa Dittoporidae из opдoвикa Лeнингpaдcкoй oблacти [Bryozoans of the family Dittoporidae from the Ordovician of the Leningrad Region]. Ezhegodnik Vsesojuznogo Paleontologicheskogo obshchestva 29: 74–91. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  80. Morozova, I.P., and L.A. Viskova. 1977. Иcтopичecкoe paзвитиe мopcкиx мшaнoк Ectoprocta [Historical development of marine Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)]. Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 4: 3–20. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  81. Nõlvak, J., O. Hints, P. Männik, and H. Pärnaste. 2007. Ordovician time scale in Estonia. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 46: 351–356.Google Scholar
  82. Nekhorosheva, L.V. 2003. Opдoвикcкиe и cилypийcкиe мшaнки из вaлyнoв лeдникoвыx пoкpoвoв плeйcтoцeнa Бoльшeзeмeльcкoй тyндpы (ceвepo-вocтoк eвpoпeйcкoй чacти Poccии) [Ordovician and Silurian Bryozoa from erratic boulders of Pleistocene glacial deposits of Bolschezemlskaya Tundra (NE of European part of Russia)]. In Materialy po biostratigraphii, faune i flore paleozoja poljarnych regionov, ed. V.I. Bondarev, 10–19. St.Petersburg: Trudy NIIGA-VNIIOkeanologia. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  83. Pander, C.H. 1830. Beiträge zur Geognosie des Russischen Reiches. St. Petersburg: K. Kray.Google Scholar
  84. Pärnaste, H. 2006a. The Early Ordovician trilobite distribution and zonation of the East Baltic. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology 55 (2): 109–127.Google Scholar
  85. Pärnaste, H. 2006b. The earliest encrinurid trilobites from the East Baltic and their taxonomic interest. Palaeontology 49 (1): 155–170. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2005.00535.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pärnaste, H., and J. Bergström. 2013. The asaphid trilobite fauna: its rise and fall in Baltica. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 389: 64–77. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.06.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Popov, L.E., K.K. Kazanovitch, N.G. Borovko, S.P. Sergeeva, and R.F. Sobolevskaya. 1989. The key sections and stratigraphy of the Cambrian-Ordovician phosphate bearing Obolus beds on the northeastern Russian platform. Trudy mezhvedomstvennogo stratigraphicheskogo komiteta SSSR 18: 1–222. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  88. Pushkin, V.I. 1987a. Opдoвикcкиe мшaнки Bocтoчнo-Eвpoпeйcкo плaтфopмы (cocтaв, pacпpocтpaнeниe, cooбщecтвa) [Ordovician bryozoans from the East European Platform (composition, distribution, community)]. Autoreferat of unpublished PhD thesis, 1–39. Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Moscow. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  89. Pushkin, V.I. 1987b. Opдoвикcкиe мшaнки Bocтoчнo-Eвpoпeйcкo плaтфopмы (cocтaв, pacпpocтpaнeниe, cooбщecтвa) [Ordovician bryozoans from the East European Platform (composition, distribution, community)]. Unpublished PhD thesis, 1–423. Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Moscow. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  90. Pushkin, V.I. 1987c. Cтpyктypa cooбщecтв opдoвикcкиx мшaнoк Бaлтийcкoгo бacceйнa. [Structure of Ordovician bryozoan assemblages in the Baltic Basin]. In Пaлeoнтoлoгичecкaя peкoнcтpyкция гeoлoгичecкoй иcтopии пaлeoбacceйнoв. Trudy XXIX sessii Vsesoyuznogo Paleontologicheskogo obschestva, ed. T.N. Bogdanova, and L.I. Khozatsky, 45–59. Leningrad: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  91. Pushkin, V.I. 2003. Cиcтeмaтичecкoe пoлoжeниe poдa Revalotrypa Bassler 1952 (Bryozoa, Trepostomida, Revalotrypidae) [The systematic position of the genus Revalotrypa Bassler, 1952 (Bryozoa, Trepostomida, Revalotrypidae)]. In Mshanki zemnogo shara: mezhdunarodnyi sbornik nauchnyh statey, 1st ed, ed. V.P. Udodov, 42–47. Novokuznetsk: Kuzbass State Pedagogical Academy. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  92. Pushkin, V.I., and L.E. Popov. 1999. Early Ordovician bryozoans from north-western Russia. Palaeontology 42 (1): 171–189. doi: 10.1111/1475-4983.00067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pushkin, V.I., and L.E. Popov. 2005. Two enigmatic bryozoans from the Middle Ordovician of the East Baltic. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1065–1074. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2005.00493.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Resolutions of the Interdepartmental Conference on the Stratigraphy of the Ordovician and Silurian of the East European Platform, 1987, Including Regional Stratigraphic Schemes. 1987. 1–114 + 4 Regional Stratigraphic Schemes. Leningrad: Vsesoyuznyi NauchnoIssledovatelskiy Geologicheskiy Institut. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  95. Roger, J., and É. Buge. 1947. L’association cellepore-gastropode dans les faluns de la Touraine. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France Série 5 (17): 461–470.Google Scholar
  96. Ross, J.P. 1964. Morphology and phylogeny of early Ectoprocta (Bryozoa). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 75 (10): 927–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ross, J.P. 1966. Early Ordovician ectoproct from Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Notes 26 (8): 218–224.Google Scholar
  98. Rubel, M.P. 1961. Brachiopods of the superfamilies Orthacea, Dalmanellacea and Syntrophiacea from the Lower Ordovician of the Baltic. Trudy instituta geologii Akademii Nauk ESSR 6: 141–226. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  99. Schmidt, R. 2013. High resolution non-destructive imaging techniques for internal fine structure of bryozoan skeletons. In Bryozoan Studies 2010, ed. A. Ernst, P. Schäfer, and J. Scholz, 321–326. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Selivanova, V.A., and V.S. Kofman. 1971. Geology of USSR. Vol. I. Leningrad, Pskov, and Novgorod Regions: Geological descriptions. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  101. Silliman, B., B. Silliman Jr., and J.D. Dana. 1851. New genera of fossil corals from the report of James Hall, on the palaeontology of New York. American Journal of Sciences and Arts 11 (33): 398–401.Google Scholar
  102. Suttner, T.J., and A. Ernst. 2007. Upper Ordovician bryozoans of the Pin Formation (Spiti Valley, northern India). Palaeontology 50 (6): 1485–1518. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00726.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Suyarkova, A.A., and T.N. Koren. 2009. Advances in the Ordovician graptolite biostratigraphy of the St Petersburg area Russia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58 (1): 3–9. doi: 10.3176/earth.2009.1.01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor, P.D. 1984. Marcusodictyon Bassler from the Lower Ordovician of Estonia: not the earliest bryozoan but a phosphatic problematicum. Alcheringa 8 (3): 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Taylor, P.D. 1993. Bryozoa. In The Fossil record 2, ed. M.J. Benton, 465–489. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  106. Taylor, P.D., and J.C.W. Cope. 1987. A trepostome bryozoan from the lower Arenig of south Wales: implications of the oldest described bryozoan. Geological Magazine 124 (4): 367–371. doi: 10.1017/S0016756800016691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Taylor, Paul D., and A. Ernst. 2004. Bryozoans. In The great ordovician biodiversification event, ed. B.D. Webby, F. Paris, M.L. Droser, and I.G. Percival, 147–156. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Taylor, P.D., and M.A. Wilson. 1999. Dianulites Eichwald, 1829: an unusual Ordovician bryozoan with a high-magnesium calcite skeleton. Journal of Paleontology 73 (1): 38–48. doi: 10.1666/13-029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Taylor, P.D., B. Berning, and M.A. Wilson. 2013. Reinterpretation of the Cambrian “bryozoan” Pywackia as an octocoral. Journal of Paleontology 87 (6): 984–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Taylor, P.D., and A. Waeschenbach. 2015. Phylogeny and diversification of Bryozoans. Palaeontology 58 (4): 585–599. doi: 10.1111/pala.12170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tolmacheva, T.Y. 2001. Conodont biostratigraphy and diversity in the Lower-Middle Ordovician of Eastern Baltoscandia (St. Petersburg region, Russia) and Kazakhstan. Unpublished comprehensive summary of doctoral dissertation. 1–40. Uppsala, Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
  112. Tolmacheva, T.Y., T.N. Koren, L.E. Holmer, L.E. Popov, and E. Raevskaya. 2001. The Hunneberg Stage (Ordovician) in the area east of St. Petersburg, north-western Russia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 74 (4): 543–561. doi: 10.1007/BF02988161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ulrich, E.O. 1890. Paleozoic Bryozoa. Illinois Geological Survey 8: 283–688.Google Scholar
  114. Viira, V. 1970. Conodonts of Varangu Member (Upper Tremadocian of Estonia). Izvestiya Akademii Nauk ESSR Himiya Geologiya 19: 224–233. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  115. Vine, G.R. 1884. Fourth report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. C. Sorby and Mr. G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on fossil Polyzoa. Reports of the Fifty-third Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 9: 161–209.Google Scholar
  116. Vinn, O. 2016. Rare encrusted lingulate brachiopods from the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary beds of Baltica. Alcheringa 40 (1): 147–151. doi: 10.1080/03115518.2016.1101234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Viskova, L.A., and A.V. Pakhnevich. 2010. A new boring bryozoan from the Middle Jurassic of the Moscow Region and its micro-CT research. Paleontological Journal 44 (2): 157–167. doi: 10.1134/S0031030110020073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang, J.-P., X.-J. Deng, G. Wang, and Y. Li. 2012. Types and biotic successions of Ordovician reefs in China. Chinese Science Bulletin 57 (10): 1160–1168. doi: 10.1007/s11434-011-4936-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Webby, B.D., R.A. Cooper, S.M. Bergström, and F. Paris. 2004. Stratigraphic framework and time slices. In The great ordovician biodiversification event, ed. B.D. Webby, F. Paris, M.L. Droser, and I.G. Percival, 41–47. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wilson, M.A., T.J. Palmer, T.E. Guensburg, C.D. Finton, and L.E. Kaufman. 1992. The development of an Early Ordovician hardground community in response to rapid sea floor calcite precipitation. Lethaia 25 (1): 19–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.1992.tb01789.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wyse Jackson, P.N., and F.K. McKinney. 2013. A micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy Investigation of the structure of Polyfenestella Bancroft, 1986 (Bryozoa: Fenestrata), from the Mississippian of Scotland: Revealing the nature of its heteromorphs. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences 31: 19–24. doi: 10.3318/IJES.2013.31.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Xia, F.-S., S.-G. Zhang, and Z.-Z. Wang. 2007. The oldest bryozoans: new evidence from the Late Tremadocian (Early Ordovician) of East Yangtze Gorges in China. Journal of Paleontology 81 (6): 1308–1326. doi: 10.1666/04-128.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Xia, F.-S., S.-G. Zhang, and H.-J. Yan. 2008. Floan (Early Ordovician) bryozoans from the upper Hunghuayuan Formation of Langyashan, Chuzhou, Anhui Province China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 25 (1): 19–34.Google Scholar
  124. Yang, K.C. 1957. 陕西梁山下奥陶纪苔藓虫的发现 Some Bryozoa from the upper part of the Lower Ordovician of Liangshan, southern Shensi (including a new genus). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 5 (1): 1–10. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  125. Zhang, S.-G., F.-S. Xia, H.-J. Yan, and Z.-Z. Wang. 2009. Horizon of the oldest known bryozoans (Ordovician). Palaeoworld 18 (1): 67–73. doi: 10.1016/j.palwor.2009.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr V. Fedorov
    • 1
  • Anna V. Koromyslova
    • 2
  • Silviu O. Martha
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sedimentary Geology, Institute of Earth SciencesSt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Borissiak Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Senckenberg Forschungsinstitute und Naturmuseen, Sektion Marine Evertebraten III (Bryozoologie)FrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations