PalZ

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 593–609 | Cite as

A new rhynchosaur from south Brazil (Santa Maria Formation) and rhynchosaur diversity patterns across the Middle-Late Triassic boundary

  • Cesar Leandro Schultz
  • Max Cardoso Langer
  • Felipe Chinaglia Montefeltro
Research Paper

Abstract

The rhynchosaur previously referred to as the “Mariante Rhynchosaur” is here formally described as a new genus and species based on two specimens: a complete skull (without the lower jaw) articulated with the three first cervical vertebrae and a set of right maxilla and dentary. Both specimens were collected at the same site in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from deposits of the Santa Maria Formation considered of Ladinian (Middle Triassic) age. Diagnostic characters include the contact between prefrontal and postfrontal, a pair of deep frontal grooves, and a very deep skull. A new phylogenetic analysis recovered the new taxon as a member of the Stenaulorhynchinae, a relatively diverse clade of Middle Triassic rhynchosaurs, with records in India, east Africa, and the Americas. Evidence suggests that the extinction of that clade took place in the context of a faunal turnover across the Ladinian-Carnian boundary, when it was replaced by the much more abundant Late Triassic hyperodapedontine rhynchosaurs.

Keywords

Stenaulorhynchinae Ladinian Dinodontosaurus AZ Rio Grande do Sul Phylogeny 

Kurzfassung

Der früher als “Mariante Rhynchosaur” bezeichnete Rhynchosaurier wird hier, anhand zweier Exemplare (ein unterkieferloser kompletter Schädel mit den drei ersten Halswirbeln sowie ein Satz rechter Oberkiefer und Dentale), formell als neue Gattung und Art beschrieben. Beide Exemplare wurden in der selben Lagerstätte in Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien, gefunden, in Ablagerungen der Santa Maria Formation aus dem Zeitalter des Ladinium (Mittlere Trias). Diagnostische Merkmale beinhalten den Kontakt zwischen Pre- und Postfrontale, ein Paar tiefer frontaler Furchen, und einen sehr tiefen Schädel. Eine neue phylogenetische Analyse positionierte das neue Taxon als Mitglied der Stenaulorhynchinae, eine relative vielfältige Klade an Rhynchosauriern des Mittleren Trias, mit Funden aus Indien, Ostafrika und den Amerikas. Hinweise deuten darauf, dass das Aussterben der Klade im Zusammenhang eines Faunenaustausches an der Ladinium-Karnium Grenze stattfand, als sie durch die viel häufigeren hyperodapedontinen Rhynchosaurier des Späten Trias ersetzt wurden.

Schlüsselwörter

Stenaulorhynchinae Ladinium Dinodontosaurus AZ Rio Grande do Sul Phylogenie 

Supplementary material

12542_2016_307_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 41 kb)

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Copyright information

© Paläontologische Gesellschaft 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia, Instituto de GeociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão PretoUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Faculdade de EngenhariaUniversidade Estadual PaulistaIlha SolteiraBrazil

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