Advertisement

Paläontologische Zeitschrift

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 611–634 | Cite as

New toxodontid (Notoungulata) from the Early Miocene of Mendoza, Argentina

  • Analía M. Forasiepi
  • Esperanza Cerdeño
  • Mariano Bond
  • Gabriela I. Schmidt
  • Maximiliano Naipauer
  • Fiona R. Straehl
  • Agustín G. Martinelli
  • Alberto C. Garrido
  • Mark D. Schmitz
  • James L. Crowley
Research Paper

Abstract

We describe a new toxodontid species, Nesodon taweretus sp. nov., from the Aisol Formation in Mendoza Province, central-west Argentina. Nesodon is a frequently found Toxodontidae, member of the Notoungulata, an extinct endemic group of Cenozoic South American mammals that are ecologically similar to current hoofed ungulates. The holotype of N. taweretus sp. nov. is a skull, and we tentatively assign some mandibular fragments and postcranial bones. N. taweretus sp. nov. differs from the other Nesodon species in several cranial and dental features, and close comparisons were made with the Patagonian Nesodon imbricatus, common in the Santa Cruz Formation (Santacrucian Age, Early Miocene). The material is of a similar size to N. imbricatus, with a body mass estimation of about 550 kg. The phylogenetic analysis groups N. taweretus sp. nov. with other species of Nesodon. The absolute age of the Aisol Formation has been established at ca 19.480 ± 0.025 Ma (Burdigalian; Early Miocene) by means of U–Pb zircon dating. The vertebrate association is encompassed by the Santacrucian Age. Latitudinal separation between Mendoza and Patagonia in the south would have favored taxonomic differences, as reflected in the species of Nesodon.

Keywords

Nesodon South America Cenozoic Early Miocene U–Pb (CA-ID-TIMS) tuff age 

Kurzfassung

Wir beschreiben eine neue Art der Toxodontiden, Nesodon taweretus sp. nov., aus der Aisol-Formation in der Provinz Mendoza, im Zentralwesten von Argentinien. Nesodon ist ein häufig vorkommendes Taxon der Toxodontidae, die zu den Notoungulaten, einer ausgestorbenen Gruppe von endemischen Säugetieren des Känozoikums in Südamerika, gehören und den rezenten gehuften Ungulata ökologisch ähnlich waren. Der Holotyp von N. taweretus sp. nov. ist ein Schädel, dem wir vorläufig einige Unterkieferfragmente und postkraniale Knochen zuweisen. N. taweretus sp. nov. unterscheidet sich von den anderen Nesodon-Arten in mehreren Merkmalen des Schädels und der Bezahnung. Enge Vergleiche wurden mit dem aus Patagonien stammenden und in der Santa-Cruz-Formation (Santacruzium, frühes Miozän) verbreiteten Nesodon imbricatus gemacht. Das Material ist von ähnlicher Grösse wie N. imbricatus, Schätzungen der Körpermasse ist etwa 550 kg. Die phylogenetische Analyse gruppiert N. taweretus sp. nov. mit anderen Arten von Nesodon. Das absolute Alter der Aisol-Formation wurde mittels der U–Pb Zirkondatierung auf etwa 19.480 ± 0.025 Ma (Burdigalium, Unteres Miozäns) gesetzt. Die Wirbeltiervergesellschaftung in das Santacruzium eingeschlossen worden. Latitudinale Trennung zwischen Mendoza und Patagonien im Süden hätte taxonomischen Unterschiede begünstigt, wie das anhand der Arten von Nesodon widergegeben ist.

Schlüsselwörter

Nesodon Südamerika Känozoikum frühes Miozän U–Pb (CA-ID-TIMS) Tuff Datierung 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge two anonymous reviewers for their observations that improved the original manuscript; G. H. Cassini for his valuable assistance in the paleobiological aspects; S. D. Kay for reviewing the English; M. S. de la Fuente and M. R. Sánchez-Villagra for support and suggestions during manuscript preparation; R. D. E. MacPhee for helpful comments on notoungulate anatomy; and J. Blanco for the artistic reconstruction of N. taweretus sp. nov in Fig. 1. The Willi Hennig Society provides a free version of the TNT program. This research was financially supported by the project CONICET-PIP 2011–2013 0276.

Supplementary material

12542_2014_233_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 3851 kb)
12542_2014_233_MOESM2_ESM.doc (4.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 4871 kb)

References

  1. Billet, G. 2010. New observations on the skull of Pyrotherium (Pyrotheria, Mammalia) and new phylogenetic hypotheses on South American ungulates. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 17: 21–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billet, G., and C. de Muizon. 2013. External and internal anatomy of a petrosal from the late Paleocene of Itaboraí, Brazil, referred to Notoungulata (Placentalia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33: 455–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond, M. 1999. Quaternary native ungulates of Southern South America: a synthesis. In Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula, ed. J. Rabassa, and M. Salemme, 77–205. Ushuaia: Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia.Google Scholar
  4. Bond, M., and M. García. 2002. Nuevos restos de toxodonte (Mammalia, Notoungulata) en estratos de la Formación Chucal, Mioceno, Altiplano de Arica, norte de Chile. Revista Geológica de Chile 29: 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bond, M., E. Cerdeño, and G. López. 1995. Los ungulados nativos de América del Sur. In Evolución Biológica y Climática de la Región Pampeana durante los últimos Cinco Millones de Años. Un Ensayo de Correlación con el Mediterráneo Occidental, ed. M.T. Alberdi, G. Leone, and E.P. Tonni, 259–275. Madrid: Monografías del MNCN, CSIC.Google Scholar
  6. Cabrera, A., and L. Kraglievich. 1931. Diagnosis previas de los ungulados fósiles del Arroyo Chasicó. Notas Preliminares del Museo de La Plata 1: 107–113.Google Scholar
  7. Campbell Jr, K.E. 2004. The Paleogene mammalian fauna of Santa Rosa, Amazonian Perú. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Sciences Series 40: 1–163.Google Scholar
  8. Cassini, G.H., E. Cerdeño, A.L. Villafañe, and N.A. Muñoz. 2012. Paleobiology of Santacrucian native ungulates (Meridiungulata: Astrapotheria, Litopterna, and Notoungulata). In Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation, ed. S.F. Vizcaíno, R.F. Kay, and M.S. Bargo, 243–286. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerdeño, E. 2011. Quebrada Fiera (Mendoza), an important paleobiogeographic center in the South American late Oligocene. Estudios Geológicos 67: 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cerdeño, E., and B. Vera. 2010. Mendozahippus fierensis gen. et sp. nov., new Notohippidae (Notoungulata) from the late Oligocene of Mendoza (Argentina). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 1805–1817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerdeño, E., M. Reguero, and B. Vera. 2010. Deseadan Archaeohyracidae (Notoungulata) from Quebrada Fiera (Mendoza, Argentina) in the paleobiogeographic context of the South American late Oligocene. Journal of Paleontology 84: 1177–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christiansen, P., and J.M. Harris. 2005. Body size of Smilodon (Mammalia: Felidae). Journal of Morphology 266: 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cifelli, R.L. 1985. South American ungulate evolution and extinction. In The great American biotic interchange, ed. F.G. Stehli, and S.D. Webb, 249–266. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Condon D., B. Schoene, S. Bowring, R. Parrish, N. McLean, S. Noble and Q. Crowley. 2007. EARTHTIME; isotopic tracers and optimized solutions for high-precision U–Pb ID-TIMS geochronology. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 88.Google Scholar
  15. Croft, D.A. 2007. The middle Miocene (Laventan) Quebrada Honda fauna, Southern Bolivia and a description of its notoungulates. Palaeontology 50: 277–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Croft, D.A., J.P. Radic, E. Zurita, R. Charrier, J.J. Flynn, and A.R. Wyss. 2003. A Miocene toxodontid (Mammalia: Notoungulata) from the sedimentary series of the Cura-Mallín Formation, Lonquimay, Chile. Revista Geológica de Chile 30: 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn, and A.R. Wyss. 2004. Notoungulata and Litopterna of the early Miocene Chucal Fauna, northern Chile. Fieldiana Geology (new series) 50: 1–49.Google Scholar
  18. Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn, and A.R. Wyss. 2007. A new basal glyptodontid and other Xenarthra of the early Miocene Chucal Fauna, northern Chile. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 781–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Croft, D.A., J.J. Flynn, and A.R. Wyss. 2008. The Tinguiririca fauna of Chile and the early stages of “modernization” of South American mammal faunas. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro 66: 191–211.Google Scholar
  20. Croft, D.A., F. Anaya, D. Auerbach, C. Garzione, and B.J. MacFadden. 2009. New data on Miocene Neotropical provinciality from Cerdas, Bolivia. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 16: 175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Ricqlès, A., P. Taquet, and V. de Buffrenil. 2009. “Rediscovery” of Paul Gervais’ paleohistological collection. Geodiversitas 31: 943–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davydov, V.I., J.L. Crowley, M.D. Schmitz, and V.I. Poletaev. 2010. High-precision U–Pb zircon age calibration of the global Carboniferous time scale and Milankovitch-band cyclicity in the Donets Basin, eastern Ukraine. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 11: Q0AA04. doi: 10.1029/2009GC002736.
  23. Dessanti, R.N. 1954. La estructura geológica de la Sierra Pintada (Departamento de San Rafael, provincia de Mendoza). Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina 9: 246–252.Google Scholar
  24. Dessanti, R.N. 1956. Descripción geológica de la Hoja 27c-Cerro Diamante (Provincia de Mendoza). Boletín de la Dirección Nacional de Minería 85: 1–79.Google Scholar
  25. Enlow, D.H., and S.O. Brown. 1958. A comparative histological study of fossil and recent bone tissue, part III. The Texas Journal of Science 10: 187–230.Google Scholar
  26. Evans, H.E., and A. deLahunta. 1972. Disección del Perro de Miller (1st edition in Spanish). México: Editorial Interamericana.Google Scholar
  27. Flynn, J.J., D.A. Croft, R. Charrier, G. Hérail, and A.R. Wyss. 2002. The first Cenozoic mammal fauna from the Chilean Altiplano. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22: 200–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Forasiepi, A.M., A.G. Martinelli, M. de la Fuente, S. Diéguez, and M. Bond. 2011. Notes on the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Aisol Formation (Neogene, San Rafael, Mendoza Province): New evidences. In Cenozoic Geology of the Central Andes of Argentina, ed. J.A. Salfity, and R.A. Marquillas, 135–154. Salta: Instituto del Cenozoico, Universidad Nacional de Salta.Google Scholar
  29. Forasiepi, A.M., F.J. Goin, and A.G. Martinelli. 2009. Contribution to the knowledge of the Sparassocynidae (Mammalia, Metatheria, Didelphoidea), with comments on the age of the Aisol Formation (Neogene), Mendoza Province, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29: 1252–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Francillon-Vieillot, H., V. de Buffrénil, J. Castanet, J. Géraudie, F.J. Meunier, J.Y. Sire, L. Zylberberg, and A. de Ricqlès. 1990. Microstructure and mineralization of vertebrate skeletal tissues. In Skeletal biomineralization: patterns, processes and evolutionary trends, ed. J.G. Carter, 471–755. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  31. Gabbert, S.L. 2004. The basicranial and posterior cranial anatomy of the families of the Toxodontia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 285: 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garrido, A.C., A. Kramarz, A.M. Forasiepi, and M. Bond. 2012. Estratigrafía, mamíferos fósiles y edad de las secuencias volcano-sedimentarias eoceno-miocenas de la sierra de Huantraico-sierra Negra y cerro Villegas (provincia del Neuquén, Argentina). Andean Geology 39: 482–510.Google Scholar
  33. Goloboff, P.A. 1993. Estimating character weights during tree search. Cladistics 9: 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goloboff, P., J.M. Carpenter, S.J. Arias, and D.R. Miranda Esquivel. 2008a. Weighting against homoplasy improves phylogenetic analysis of morphological data sets. Cladistics 24: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goloboff, P., J. Farris, and K. Nixon. 2008b. TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24: 774–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. González Díaz, E.F. 1972. Descripción geológica de la Hoja 27d-San Rafael, Provincia de Mendoza. Boletín de la Dirección Nacional de Minería 132: 1–127.Google Scholar
  37. Hurum, J.H., and A. Chinsamy-Turan. 2012. The radiation, bone histology, and biology of early mammals. In Forerunners of mammals: radiation, histology, biology, ed. A. Chinsamy-Turan, 249–270. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Jaffey, A.H., K.F. Flynn, L.E. Glendenin, W.C. Bentley, and A.M. Essling. 1971. Precision measurements of half-lives and specific activities of 235U and 238U. Physical Review C 4: 1889–1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Janis, C.M. 1990. Correlation of cranial and dental variables with body size in ungulates and macropodoids. In Body size in mammalian paleobiology: estimation and biological implications, ed. J. Damuth, and B.J. MacFadden, 255–300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kay, R.F., R.H. Madden, R.L. Cifelli, and J.J. Flynn. 1997. Vertebrate paleontology in the neotropics. The Miocene fauna of La Venta, Colombia. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  41. Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., R. Presley, and C. Poplin. 1986. The cranial vascular system in taeniolabidoid multituberculate mammals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 313: 525–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kraglievich, L. 1930. La Formación Friaseana del río Frías, río Fénix, Laguna Blanca, etc., y su fauna de mamíferos. Physis 10: 127–161.Google Scholar
  43. Kramarz, A.G., A. Garrido, A.M. Forasiepi, M. Bond, and C. Tambussi. 2005. Estratigrafía y vertebrados (Aves y Mammalia) de la Formación Cerro Bandera, Mioceno Temprano de la Provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. Revista Geológica de Chile 32: 273–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kramarz, A.G., M. Bond, and A.M. Forasiepi. 2011a. New remains of Astraponotus (Mammalia, Astrapotheria) and considerations on the astrapothere cranial evolution. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 85: 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kramarz, A., A.M. Forasiepi, and M. Bond. 2011b. Vertebrados cenozoicos. In Relatorio del XVIII Congreso Geológico Argentino. Geología y Recursos Naturales de la Provincia del Neuquén, ed. H.A. Leanza, C. Arregui, O. Carbone, J.C. Danieli, and J.M. Vallés, 557–572. Neuquén: Asociación Geológica Argentina.Google Scholar
  46. Krogman, W.M. 1930. Studies in growth changes in the skull and face of anthropoids. II. Ectocranial and endocranial suture closure in anthropoids and Old World apes. American Journal of Anatomy 46: 315–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. López, G.M., M.G. Vucetich, A.A. Carlini, M. Bond, M.E. Pérez, M.R. Ciancio, D.J. Pérez, M. Arnal, and A.I. Olivares. 2011. New Miocene mammal assemblages from Neogene Manantiales basin, Cordillera Frontal, San Juan, Argentina. In Cenozoic Geology of the Central Andes of Argentina, ed. J.A. Salfity, and R.A. Marquillas, 211–226. Salta: Instituto del Cenozoico, Universidad Nacional de Salta.Google Scholar
  48. Lundelius, E.L., V.M. Bryant, R. Mandel, K.J. Thies, and A. Thoms. 2013. The first occurrence of a toxodont (Mammalia, Notoungulata) in the United States. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33: 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacPhee, R.D.E. 2014. The serrialis bone, interparietals, “X” elements, entotympanics, and the composition of the notoungulate caudal cranium. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 384: 1–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Madden, R.H. 1990. Miocene Toxodontidae (Notoungulata, Mammalia) from Colombia, Ecuador and Chile. Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  51. Madden, R.H. 1997. A new toxodontid notoungulate. In Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics: The Miocene Fauna of La Venta, Colombia, ed. R.F. Kay, R.H. Madden, R.L. Cifelli, and J.J. Flynn, 335–354. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  52. Marshall, L.G., and R.L. Cifelli. 1990. Analysis of changing diversity patterns in Cenozoic land mammal age faunas, South America. Palaeovertebrata 19: 169–210.Google Scholar
  53. Marshall, L. G., R. Hoffstetter, and R. Pascual. 1983. Mammals and stratigraphy: geochronology of the continental mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America. Palaeovertebrata, mémoire extraordinaire, 1–93. Montpellier: Laboratoire de paléontologie des vertébrés de l'École pratique des hautes études. Google Scholar
  54. Mattinson, J.M. 2005. Zircon U–Pb chemical abrasion (“CA-TIMS”) method: combined annealing and multi-step partial dissolution analysis for improved precision and accuracy of zircon ages. Chemical Geology 220: 47–66.Google Scholar
  55. Mazzoni, M.M. 1986. Procesos y depósitos piroclásticos. Asociación Geológica Argentina. Serie B (Didáctica y Complementaria) 14: 1–115.Google Scholar
  56. McKenna, M.C. 1975. Toward a phylogenetic classification of mammals. In Phylogeny of the primates, ed. W.P. Luckett, and F.S. Szalay, 21–46. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mendoza, M., C.M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist. 2006. Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression. Journal of Zoology 270: 90–101.Google Scholar
  58. Nassif, N.L., S. Musalem, and E. Cerdeño. 2000. A new toxodont from the late Miocene of Catamarca, Argentina, and a phylogenetic analysis of the Toxodontidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20: 591–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. O’Leary, M.A., J.I. Bloch, J.J. Flynn, T.J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N.P. Giannini, S.L. Goldberg, B.P. Kraatz, Z.X. Luo, J. Meng, X.J. Ni, M.J. Novacek, F.A. Perini, Z.S. Randall, G.W. Rougier, E.J. Sargis, M.T. Silcox, N.B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P.M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J.R. Wible, and A.L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Owen, R. 1846. Notices of some fossil mammalia of South America. British Association for the Advancement of Science Report 1846, Transactions of the Sections 16: 65–67.Google Scholar
  61. Pascual, R. 1954. Los toxodóntidos del “Colloncurense” descriptos por Roth y su presencia en el Santacruciano. Notas del Museo de la Plata 17: 95–111.Google Scholar
  62. Patterson, B. 1932. On the auditory region of the Toxodontia. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology 6: 1–27.Google Scholar
  63. Patterson, B. 1934. The auditory region of an upper Pliocene typotherid. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology 6: 83–89.Google Scholar
  64. Patterson, B. 1936. The internal structure of the ear in some notoungulates. Fieldiana, Geology 6: 199–227.Google Scholar
  65. Perkins, M.E., J.G. Fleagle, M.T. Heizler, B. Nash, T.M. Bown, A.A. Tauber, and M.T. Dozo. 2012. Tephrochronology of the Miocene Santa Cruz and Pinturas formations, Argentina. In Early Miocene paleobiology in Patagonia: high-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz formation, ed. S.F. Vizcaíno, R.F. Kay, and M.S. Bargo, 23–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Polaco, O.J., A.F. Guzmán, and G. Tapia-Ramírez. 2004. Occurrence of toxodonts in the Pleistocene of México. Current Research in the Pleistocene 21: 113–114.Google Scholar
  67. Rager, L., L. Hautier, A. Forasiepi, A. Goswami, and M.R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2014. Timing in cranial suture closure in placental mammals: phylogenetic patterns, intraspecific variation, and comparison with marsupials. Journal of Morphology 275: 125–140.Google Scholar
  68. Rivera, T.A., M. Storey, M.D. Schmitz, and J.L. Crowley. 2013. Age intercalibration of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and chemically distinct U/Pb zircon populations from the Alder Creek Rhyolite Quaternary geochronology standard. Chemical Geology 345: 87–98.Google Scholar
  69. Roth, S. 1899. Apuntes sobre la geología y la paleontología de los territorios del Río Negro y Neuquén. Revista del Museo de La Plata 9: 143–197.Google Scholar
  70. Roth, S. 1903. Noticias preliminares sobre nuevos mamíferos fósiles del Cretáceo superior y Terciario inferior de la Patagonia. Revista del Museo de La Plata 11: 135–158.Google Scholar
  71. Sánchez Villagra, M.R., O.A. Aguilera, and A.A. Carlini. 2010. Urumaco and Venezuelan Paleontology: the fossil record of the Northern Neotropics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Schaller, O. 1992. Illustrated veterinary anatomical nomenclature. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke Verlag.Google Scholar
  73. Schmidt, G. I. 2013. Litopterna y Notoungulata (Mammalia) de la Formación Ituzaingó (Mioceno tardío-Plioceno) de la Provincia de Entre Ríos: sistemática, bioestratigrafía y paleobiogeografía. Ph.D. thesis, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata.Google Scholar
  74. Schmitz, M.D., and V.I. Davydov. 2012. Quantitative radiometric and biostratigraphic calibration of the global Pennsylvanian–Early Permian time scale. Geological Society of America Bulletin 124: 549–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmitz, M.D., and B. Schoene. 2007. Derivation of isotope ratios, errors and error correlations for U–Pb geochronology using 205Pb–235U–(233U)-spiked isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometric data. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8(8). doi: 10.1029/2006GC00149.
  76. Scott, W.B. 1912. Toxodonta. In Reports of the Princeton University expedition to Patagonia, Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds. Vol. 6, paleontology, part 2, ed. W.B. Scott, 111–238. Princeton: Princeton University.Google Scholar
  77. Sepúlveda, E., A. Bermúdez, O. Bordonaro, and D. Delpino. 2007. Hoja Geológica 3569-IV, Embalse El Nihuil, Provincia de Mendoza. Boletín del Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino, Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales 268: 1–52.Google Scholar
  78. Sepúlveda, E., F.W. Carpio, M.C. Regairaz, J.C.M. Zanettini, and M.A. Zárate. 2001. Hoja Geológica 3569-II, San Rafael, Provincia de Mendoza. Boletín del Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino, Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales 321: 1–86.Google Scholar
  79. Shockey, B.C., and F. Anaya. 2008. Postcranial osteology of mammals from Salla, Bolivia (late Oligocene): Form, function, and phylogenetic implications. In Mammalian evolutionary morphology: a tribute to Frederick S. Szalay, ed. E.J. Sargis, and M. Dagosto, 135–157. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  80. Sláma, J., J. Košler, D.J. Condon, J.L. Crowley, A. Gerdes, J.M. Hanchar, M.S.A. Horstwood, J.A. Morris, L. Nasdala, N. Norberg, U. Schaltegger, B. Schoene, M.N. Tubrett, and M.J. Whitehouse. 2008. Plešovice zircon: a new natural reference material for U–Pb and Hf isotopic microanalysis. Chemical Geology 249: 1–35.Google Scholar
  81. Soria, M.F. 1983. Vertebrados fósiles y edad de la Formación Aisol, provincia de Mendoza. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina 38: 299–306.Google Scholar
  82. Straehl, F.R., T.M. Scheyer, A.M. Forasiepi, R.D. MacPhee, and M.R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2013. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones. PLOS ONE 8(7): e69275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069275.
  83. Teruggi, M.E., M.M. Mazzoni, L.A. Spalletti, and R.R. Andreis. 1978. Rocas piroclásticas. Interpretación y sistemática. Asociación Geológica Argentina Serie B (Didáctica y Complementaria) 5: 1–36.Google Scholar
  84. van der Klaauw, C.J. 1931. The auditory bulla in some fossil mammals with a general introduction to this region of the skull. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 62: 1–352.Google Scholar
  85. Vizcaíno, S.F., R.F. Kay, and M.S. Bargo. 2012. Background for a paleoecological study of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) on the Atlantic coast of Patagonia. In Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: high-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation, ed. S.F. Vizcaíno, R.F. Kay, and M.S. Bargo, 1–22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Vucetich, M.G., C.M. Deschamps, C. Morgan, and A.M. Forasiepi. 2011. A new Cardiomyinae (Rodentia, Hydrochoeridae) from western Argentina. Its age and considerations on ontogeny and diversity of the subfamily. Ameghiniana 48: 556–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wible, J.R., and T.J. Gaudin. 2004. On the cranial osteology of the yellow armadillo Euphractus sexcinctus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Placentalia). Annals of Carnegie Museum 73: 117–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Analía M. Forasiepi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Esperanza Cerdeño
    • 1
  • Mariano Bond
    • 3
  • Gabriela I. Schmidt
    • 4
  • Maximiliano Naipauer
    • 5
  • Fiona R. Straehl
    • 2
  • Agustín G. Martinelli
    • 6
  • Alberto C. Garrido
    • 7
  • Mark D. Schmitz
    • 8
  • James L. Crowley
    • 8
  1. 1.Paleontología, IANIGLA, CCT-CONICET MendozaMendozaArgentina
  2. 2.Paläontologisches Institut und MuseumUniversität ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.División Paleontología de VertebradosMuseo de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  4. 4.Laboratorio de Paleontología de VertebradosCentro de Investigaciones Científicas y Transferencia de Tecnología a la Producción (CICYTTP-CONICET)DiamanteArgentina
  5. 5.Instituto de Estudios Andinos “Don Pablo Groeber” (FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina
  6. 6.Departamento de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia, Instituto de GeociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  7. 7.Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales “Profesor Dr. Juan A. Olsacher”, Etcheluz y Ejercito ArgentinoZapalaArgentina
  8. 8.Boise State UniversityBoiseUSA

Personalised recommendations