Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Evidence for a venomous Sinornithosaurus

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. Fry, B.G., H. Scheib, L. van der Weerd, B. Young, J. McNaughtan, S.F.R. Ramjan, N. Vidal, R.E. Poelmann, and J.A. Norman. 2008. Evolution of an arsenal: structural and functional diversification of the venom system in the advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 7(2): 215–246.

  2. Gianechini, F.A., F.L. Agnolín, and M.D. Ezcurra. 2010. A reassessment of the purportedly venom delivery system of the bird-like raptor Sinornithosaurus. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. doi:10.1007/s12542-010-0074-9.

  3. Hotton III, N.C. 1991. The nature and diversity of synapsids: Prologue to the origin of mammals. In Origins of higher groups of tetrapods, ed. H.-P. Schultze, and L. Trueb, 598–634. New York: Cornell University Press.

  4. Nydam, R.L. 2000. A new taxon of helodermatid-like lizard from the Albian-Cenomanian of Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20: 285–294.

  5. Szaniawski, H. 2009. The earliest known venomous animals recognized among conodonts. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54: 669–676.

  6. Xu, X., and X.-C. Wu. 2001. Cranial morphology of Sinornithosaurus millenii Xu et al. 1999 (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) from the Yixian formation of Liaoning, China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38: 1739–1752.

  7. Xu, X., X.-L. Wang, and X.-C. Wu. 1999. A dromaeosaurid dinosaur with a filamentous integument from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature 401: 262–266.

  8. Zheng, X. 2009. Niaolei Qiyuan. Jinan City, China: Shandong Science and Technology Publishing House Press. [The Origin of Birds].

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to David A. Burnham.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gong, E., Martin, L.D., Burnham, D.A. et al. Evidence for a venomous Sinornithosaurus . Paläontol Z 85, 109–111 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12542-010-0076-7

Download citation


  • Mandibular Gland
  • Venom Gland
  • Extinct Taxon
  • Venomous Animal
  • Extinct Genus