Advertisement

Paläontologische Zeitschrift

, Volume 84, Issue 3, pp 397–411 | Cite as

Re-investigation of Mimetaster hexagonalis: a marrellomorph arthropod from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate (Germany)

  • Gabriele Kühl
  • Jes Rust
Research Paper

Abstract

The arthropod Mimetaster hexagonalis Gürich, 1931 from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate (Germany) is re-described. With 123 available individuals, M. hexagonalis is the most abundant non-trilobite arthropod from this Lagerstätte. New (as well as old) specimen material shows new morphological features of M. hexagonalis. The ontogeny is described based on three juvenile specimens. The growth mode is similar to that in the marrellomorph Vachonisia rogeri Lehmann, 1955. The number of trunk segments increases from juvenile to adult. The mode of life of the arthropod is re-considered. The arthropod is considered to live in groups of several individuals. A mutualistic relationship with sponges of unknown systematic affinities is most likely. An ecological interaction with tentaculitoids is recognized but needs further investigation. The phylogenetic position of M. hexagonalis as a member of the Marrellomorpha is confirmed, but remains to be explored within the broader frame of euarthropod phylogeny.

Keywords

Mimetaster hexagonalis Marrellomorpha Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate Symbiosis 

Abbreviations

General

l

Left

r

Right

ssp

Sponge spicules

Ventral head

A1-3

Head appendage one to three

hyp

Hypostome

mk

Median keel

vo

Ventral organ

Dorsal head

ds

Dorsal shield

se

Stalked eye

S1-6

Spines of dorsal shield one to six

Trunk

ten

Trunk endopods

tex

Trunk exopods

exs

Exopod setae

end

Endites

lats

Last apodus trunk segment

Kurzfassung

Der Arthropode Mimetaster hexagonalis Gürich, 1931 aus dem unterdevonischen Hunsrückschiefer (Deutschland) wird neu beschrieben. Mit rund 123 verfügbaren Exemplaren ist M. hexagonalis der häufigste (ausgenommen Trilobiten) Arthropode aus dieser Lagerstätte. Neues sowie bereits bekanntes Fossilmaterial zeigt neue morphologische Merkmale von M. hexagonalis. Die Ontogenie konnte anhand von drei Exemplaren beschrieben werden. Der Wachstumsmodus ähnelt dem marrellomorphen Vachonisia rogeri, Lehmann, 1955. Die Anzahl der Rumpfsegmente steigt von juvenilen zu adulten Stadien an. Die Lebensweise des Arthropoden ist ebenfalls neu betrachtet. Der Arthropode hat wahrscheinlich in Gruppen mit mehreren Individuen gelebt. Eine mutualistische Beziehung zu nicht näher bestimmbaren Schwämmen ist sehr wahrscheinlich. Eine Interaktion mit Tentakulitoiden konnte nachgewiesen werden, bedarf aber weiterer wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Die phylogenetische Position von M. hexagonalis als ein Vertreter der Marrellomorpha ist bestätigt, wird aber in einem breiteren Rahmen der Phylogenie der Euarthropoden weiter erforscht.

Schlüsselwörter

Mimetaster hexagonalis Marrellomorpha Unteres Devon Hunsrückschiefer Symbiose 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The studied specimens were kindly provided by several public and private collections: Museum of Natural History and General Department of Cultural Heritage Rhineland Palatinate, Archaeology Department, Geological History of the Earth Section, Mainz; Museum of Natural History, Karlsruhe; Museum of Natural History, Berlin; Museum of Natural History, Wien; Bavarian State Collection of Palaeontology and Geology, Munich; Schlossparkmuseum Bad Kreuznach; German Mining Museum, Bochum; Dr. Volkmar Will Rockenhausen; Woulter Suedkamp Bundenbach. We thank Dr. Michael Wuttke (General Department of Cultural Heritage Rhineland Palatinate, Department Archaeology, Section Geological History of the Earth, Mainz), Dr. Christoph Bartels (German Mining Museum, Bochum), Georg Oleschinski and Alexandra Bergmann (Steinmann Institute, Division of Palaeontology, Bonn) for photographs and radiographs. Thanks also to Dr. Herbert Lutz (Museum of Natural History, Mainz) for hints on interesting details related to the fossil material. Finally, we thank Prof. Derek E. G. Briggs (Yale University, New Haven) and an anonymous reviewer for fruitful suggestions about the manuscript. Funding was provided by the German Science Foundation (project no. RU 665/5-1).

References

  1. Abello, P., R. Villaneuva, and J.M. Gili. 1990. Epibiosis in deep sea crab populations as indicator of biological and behavioural characteristics of the host. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 70: 687–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti, G. 1982. Nowakiidae (Dacryoconarida) aus dem Hunsrückschiefer von Bundenbach (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 63: 451–463.Google Scholar
  3. Bartels, C., and G. Brassel. 1990. Fossilien im Hunsrückschiefer. Dokumente des Meereslebens im Devon. Idar-Oberstein: Museum Idar-Oberstein.Google Scholar
  4. Bartels, C., D.E.G. Briggs, and G. Brassel. 1998. The fossils of the Hunsrück Slate: Marine life in the Devonian. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Cambridge Palaeobiology Series 3).Google Scholar
  5. Bartels, C., M. Wuttke, and D.E.G. Briggs. 2002a. The Nahecaris Project: Releasing the marine life of the Devonian from the Hunsrück Slate of Bundenbach (SW Germany). Preliminary results and unresolved questions. Metalla 9: 59–72.Google Scholar
  6. Bartels, C., M. Poschmann, T. Schindler, and M. Wuttke. 2002b. Palaeontology and paleoecology of the Kaub Formation (Lower Emsian, Lower Devonian) at Bundenbach (Hunsrück, SW Germany). Metalla 9: 105–122.Google Scholar
  7. Bergström, J. 1980. Morphology and systematics of early arthropods. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg 23: 7–42.Google Scholar
  8. Bergström, J., and X. Hou. 2003. Arthropod origins. Bulletin of Geosciences 78: 323–334.Google Scholar
  9. Beurlen, K. 1934. Die Pygaspiden, eine neue Crustaceen—(Entomostracen-) Gruppe aus den Mesosaurier führenden Iraty-Schichten Brasiliens. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 16: 122–138.Google Scholar
  10. Birenheide, R. 1971. Beobachtungen am “Scheinstern” Mimetaster aus dem Hunsrück-Schiefer. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 52: 77–91.Google Scholar
  11. Bitsch, C., and J. Bitsch. 2005. Evolution of eye structure and arthropod phylogeny. In Crustacea and arthropod relationships, ed. Stefan Koenemann, and Ronald A. Jenner, 185–214. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  12. Brandt, D.S. 1996. Epizoans on Flexicalymene (Trilobita) and implications for trilobite paleoecology. Journal of Paleontology 70: 442–449.Google Scholar
  13. Briggs, D.E.G., and C. Bartels. 2001. New arthropods from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate (Lower Emsian, Rhenish Massif, western Germany). Palaeontology 44: 275–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Briggs, D.E.G., and H.B. Whittington. 1985. Modes of life of arthropods from the Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 76: 149–160.Google Scholar
  15. Briggs, D.E.G., R.A. Fortey, and M.A. Wills. 1992. Morphological disparity in the Cambrian. Science 256: 1670–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briggs, D.E.G., D.H. Erwin, and F.J. Collier. 1994. The fossils of the Burgess Shale. Washington and London: Smithonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cotton, T.J., and S.J. Braddy. 2004. The phylogeny of arachnomorph arthropods and the origin of the Chelicerata. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edingburgh: Earth Sciences 94: 169–193.Google Scholar
  18. Garcia-Bellido, D.C., and D.H. Collins. 2006. A new study of Marrella splendens (Arthropoda, Marrellomorpha) from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 43: 721–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gürich, G. 1931. Mimetaster hexagonalis, ein neuer Kruster aus dem unterdevonischen Bundenbacher Dachschiefer. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 13: 204–238.Google Scholar
  20. Hou, X., and J. Bergström. 1997. Arthropods from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, southwest China. Fossils and Strata 45: 1–116.Google Scholar
  21. Kühl, G., J. Bergström, and J. Rust. 2008. Morphology, paleobiology and phylogenetic position of Vachonisia rogeri (Arthropoda) from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate (Germany). Palaeontographica, Abt. A 286: 123–157.Google Scholar
  22. Kutscher, F. 1968. Beiträge zur Sedimentation und Fossilführung des Hunsrückschiefers.—19. Röntgenaufnahmen von Dachschieferplatten mit Tentakuliten. Nassauischer Verein für Naturkunde 99: 18–21.Google Scholar
  23. Lehmann, W.M. 1950. Mimetaster hexagonalis Gürich. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 91B: 101–120.Google Scholar
  24. Lehmann, W.M. 1955. Vachonisia rogeri n. g. n. sp., ein Branchiopod aus dem unterdevonischen Hunsrückschiefer. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 29: 126–130.Google Scholar
  25. Maldonado, M., and I. Uriz. 1992. Relationships between sponges and crabs: Patterns of epibiosis on Inachus aguiarii (Decapoda: Majidae). Marine Biology 113: 281–286.Google Scholar
  26. Moore, R.C. 1959. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part R, 0121. New York: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  27. Novozilov, N. 1960. Klass Hemicrustacea Novojilov, cl. nov. In Osnovy paleontologii. Spravocniak dla paleontologov I geologov SSSR, Clenistonogie, trilobitoobraznie I rakoobraznie, ed. N.E. Cernyseva, 197–200. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR.Google Scholar
  28. Opitz, R. 1932. Seestern oder Krebs? Ein merkwürdiges Gliedertier (Mimetaster) aus den Dachschiefern von Bundenbach. Natur und Museum 62: 150–152.Google Scholar
  29. Peng, S., X. Yangand, and N.C. Hughes. 2008. The oldest known stalk-eyed trilobite, Parablackwelderia Kobayashi, 1942 (Damesellinae, Cambrian), and its occurrence in Shandong, China. Journal of Paleontology 82: 842–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rolfe, W.D.I. 1969. Arthropoda incertae sedis. In Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4(2), ed. Raymond C. Moore, R620–R625. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  31. Schindler, T., O.E. Sutcliffe, C. Bartels, M. Poschmann, and M. Wuttke. 2002. Lithostratigraphical subdivision and chronostratigraphical position of the middle Kaub formation (Lower Emsian, Lower Devonian) of the Bundenbach area (Hunsrück, SW Germany). Metalla 9: 73–88.Google Scholar
  32. Schumacher, G.A., R.C. Frey, and L.E. Babcock. 1998. Commensal epibionts on Flexicalymene (Trilobita, Ordivician). Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 30: 70.Google Scholar
  33. Siveter, D.J., R.A. Fortey, M.D. Sutton, D.E.G. Briggs, and D.J. Siveter. 2007. A silurian marrellomorph arthropod. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 2223–2229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stürmer, W. 1969. Röntgenuntersuchung an paläontologischen Präparaten. Electromedica 2: 48–50.Google Scholar
  35. Stürmer, W., and J. Bergström. 1976. The arthropods Mimetaster and Vachonisia from the Devonian Hunsrück Slate. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 50: 78–111.Google Scholar
  36. Sutcliffe, O.E., D.E.G. Briggs, and C. Bartels. 1999. Ichnological evidence for the environmental setting of the Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany. Geology 27: 275–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sutcliffe, O.E., S.L. Tibbs, and D.E.G. Briggs. 2002. Sedimentology and environmental interpretation of the fine-grained turbidites in the Kaub formation of the Hunsrück Slate: analysis of a section excavated for Project Nahecaris. Metalla 9: 89–122.Google Scholar
  38. Van Roy, P. 2006. Non-trilobite arthropods from the Ordovician of Morocco. PhD thesis, Ghent University.Google Scholar
  39. Waugh, D.A., R.M. Feldmann, R.S. Crawford, S.L. Jakobsen, and K.B. Thomas. 2004. Epibiont preservational and observational bias in fossil marine decapods. Journal of Paleontology 78: 961–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Whittington, H.B. 1971. Redescription of Marrella splendens (Trilobitoidea) from the Burgess Shale, Middle Cambrian, British Columbia. Geological Survey Bulletin 209: 1–24.Google Scholar
  41. Wills, M.A., D.E.G. Briggs, R.A. Fortey, M. Wilkinson, and P.H.A. Sneath. 1998. An arthropod phylogeny based on fossil and recent taxa. In Arthropod fossils and phylogeny, ed. G.D. Edgecombe, 33–105. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of PalaeontologySteinmann InstituteBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations