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Paläontologische Zeitschrift

, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 333–372 | Cite as

Oligocene and Early Miocene gastropods from Kutch (NW India) document an early biogeographic switch from Western Tethys to Indo-Pacific

  • Mathias HarzhauserEmail author
  • Markus Reuter
  • Werner E. Piller
  • Björn Berning
  • Andreas Kroh
  • Oleg Mandic
Review Article

Abstract

Shallow marine gastropod assemblages from Chattian, Aquitanian and Burdigalian sections in the Indian Kutch Basin are described. They provide insight into the composition and biogeographic relations of the gastropod assemblages at this junction between the Western Tethys and Proto-Indo-Pacific Ocean. For the first time, an improved biostratigraphy allows a clear separation of the assemblages, especially for the hitherto undifferentiated Early Miocene faunas. Throughout the Oligocene, about one-third of the species are also frequently found in the Western Tethys, documenting a passable Tethyan Seaway for nearshore molluscs. A considerable provincialism is evident as well. The expected turnover during the Early Miocene, due to the closing of the Tethyan Seaway, is reflected in the Miocene assemblages. Surprisingly, however, the cut appears very early, i.e. already during the Aquitanian, when the West–East interrelation drops to zero despite the passage having been open during this interval. In contrast, the Burdigalian assemblages witness a minor re-appearance of Western Tethys taxa, suggesting the re-establishment of rather ineffective migration pathways prior to the final closure of the Tethyan Seaway. Cerithium bermotiense and Lyria (Indolyria) maniyaraensis are introduced as new species.

Keywords

Gastropoda India Biogeography Oligocene Miocene 

Zusammenfassung

Seicht marine Gastropodenvergesellschaftungen aus dem Chattium, Aquitanium und Burdigalium des indischen Kutch Beckens werden beschrieben. Sie erlauben Einblicke in die Zusammensetzung und die biogeographischen Beziehungen der Gastropodenfaunen an dieser Schnittstelle zwischen West-Tethys und Proto-Indo-Pazifik. Erstmals können insbesondere die bisher ungetrennten frühmiozänen Faunen aufgrund einer verbesserten Biostratigraphie gut separiert werden. Während des gesamten Oligozäns deutet ein Anteil von ca. 30% West-Tethys Arten an der Gesamtfauna auf eine gut passierbare Tethys Verbindung. Ein hohes Maß an Provinzialismus ist ebenso evident. Der in Folge der Tethys-Schließung erwartete Umschwung im frühen Miozän wird durch die Faunen deutlich belegt. Überraschend ist jedoch der sehr frühe biogeographische Schnitt, da die faunistischen West-Ost Beziehungen bereits im Aquitanium zusammenbrechen. Ein sehr geringer Anteil an West-Tethys Arten im Burdigalium dürfte auf eine Wiederherstellung eines relativ uneffektiven Migrationsweges vor der finalen Tethys-Schließung hinweisen. Cerithium bermotiense und Lyria (Indolyria) maniyaraensis werden als neue Arten eingeführt.

Schlüsselwörter

Gastropoda Indien Biogeographie Oligozän Miozän 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are greatly thankful to Bernard Landau (International Health Centres, Albufeira, Portugal) and Ronald Janssen (Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt) for their constructive comments and thorough reviews. P.H. Bhatti (Bhuj) kindly provided the logistic and administrative support in Kutch. M. Stachowitsch (Vienna) checked the English. This study was granted by the FWF Project P-18189-N10: Biogeographic Differentiation and Biotic Gradients in the Western Indo-Pacific during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene.

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© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathias Harzhauser
    • 1
    Email author
  • Markus Reuter
    • 2
  • Werner E. Piller
    • 2
  • Björn Berning
    • 3
  • Andreas Kroh
    • 1
  • Oleg Mandic
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural History Museum ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Earth Sciences, Geology and PalaeontologyGraz UniversityGrazAustria
  3. 3.Upper Austrian State MuseumLinz-LeondingAustria

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