Thermo-Mechanical Constitutive Equation of 22MnB5 Steel Sheet for Hot Press Forming Process

  • Kwanghyun Ahn
  • Yuhyeong Jeong
  • Jonghun YoonEmail author
Regular Paper


The 22MnB5 steel sheet is applied to the hot press forming process to enhance the strength of the final product with guaranteeing sufficient formability. Since it undergoes the austenitizing process up to 850 °C and is quenched down to room temperature, it does not only occur large plastic deformation, but also induce the phase transformation. It is substantially difficult to take into consideration of the flow stress variations with respect to the temperature and strain rate associated with the phases such as the austenite, ferrite/pearlite, bainite, and martensite in the numerical simulation for the HPF process. This paper mainly proposes a generalized form of thermo-mechanical constitutive equation which is able to capture the experimental flow curves, precisely, in terms of the strain and strain rate hardening including the temperature softening, simultaneously.


22MnB5 steel sheet Constitutive equation Phase transformation Hot press forming 



This work was supported by the “Human Resources Program in Energy Technology” of the Korean Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), Granted by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20174010201310).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Venturatoa, G., Novellaa, M., Bruschia, S., Ghiottia, A., & Shivpurib, R. (2017). Effects of phase transformation in hot stamping of 22MnB5 high strength steel. Procedia Engineering, 183, 316–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nikavesh, M., Naderi, M., & Akbari, G. H. (2012). Influence of hot plastic deformation and cooling rate on martensite and bainite start temperature in 22MnB5 steel. Material Science and Engineering: A, 540, 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aziz, N., Aqida, S. N. (2013). Optimization of quenching process in hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel for high strength properties for publication in. In Material Science and Engineering, (Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu, H. S., Xing, Z. W., Bao, J., & Song, B. Y. (2010). Investigation of the hot-stamping process for advanced high-strength steel sheet by numerical simulation. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 19, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, F. F., Fu, M. W., Lin, J. P., & Wang, X. N. (2014). Experimental and theoretical study on the hot forming limit of 22MnB5 steel. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 71, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang, B. T., Bruschi, S., Ghiotti, A., & Bariani, P. F. (2014). Numerical modelling of the tailored tempering process applied to 22MnB5 sheets. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 81, 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Merklein, M., Lechler, J., & Geiger, M. (2006). Characterisation of the flow properties of the quenchenable ultra high strength steel 22MnB5. CIRP Annals, 55, 229–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Salari, S., Naderi, M., & Bleck, W. (2015). Constitutive modeling during simultaneous forming and quenching of a boron bearing steel at high temperatures. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 24, 808–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yao, Z., Ma, F., Liu, Q., Zhao, F., Li, F., Lin, J., Wang, X., Song, W. (2012). High temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of uncoated ultrahigh-strength steel 22MnB5. In Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 world automotive congress, (Vol. 199, pp. 67–78).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, F., Lin, J., & Mingwang, F. (2016). Study on the constitutive model of boron steel 22MnB5 with different phase fractions. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 17, 1323–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuanhui, H., Zhou, S., Han, R., Gao, J., & Yang, Y. (2018). Microstructure evolution and simulation in 22MnB5 steel during hot stamping. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 6, 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tisza, M., Lukács, Z., Kovács, P., & Budai, D. (2017). Some recent developments in sheet metal forming for production of lightweight automotive parts. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 896, 012087.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Merklein, M., & Lechler, J. (2008). Determination of material and process characteristics for hot stamping processes of quenchenable ultra high strength steels with respect to a FE-based process design. SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, 1, 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Naderi, M., Durrenberger, L., Molinari, A., & Bleck, W. (2008). Constitutive relationships for 22MnB5 boron steel deformed isothermally at high temperatures. Materials Science and Engineering A, 478, 130–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karbasian, H., & Tekkaya, A. E. (2010). A review on hot stamping. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 210, 2103–2118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valls, I., Casas, B., Rodriguez, N., & Paar, U. (2010). Benefits from using high thermal conductivity tool steels in the hot forming of steels. La Metallurgia Italiana, 102, 23–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SMART Reactor Design DivisionKorea Atomic Energy Research InstituteDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Design EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversityAnsan-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations