The mechanical performance of sugar palm fibres (ijuk) reinforced phenolic composites

  • Bushra RashidEmail author
  • Zulkiflle Leman
  • Mohammad Jawaid
  • Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali
  • Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak


Sugar palm fibres are one of the natural fibres which have many features and need further study to understand their properties. The aim of this work is to investigate the flexural, compressive and impact properties of sugar palm fibres reinforced phenolic composites. Sugar palm fibres were used as a filler (particle size 150 μm) and with loading of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 vol.%. The fibres were treated by sea water and then fabricated into composites by hot press technique. Flexural, compressive, and impact tests were carried out as per ASTM D790, ASTM D695-08a, and ASTM D256 standards, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology and the interfacial bonding of the fibres-matrix in composites. The results show that the mechanical properties of the composites improve with the incorporation of fibres. The composite of 30 vol.% particle loading exhibit optimum values which are 32.23 MPa, 61.66 MPa, and 4.12 kJ/m2 for flexural, compressive, and impact strength, respectively. This was because good compatibility of fibre-matrix bonding. Consequently, sugar palm fibre is one of the prospective fibres and could be used as a potential resource to reinforcement polymer composite.


Composites Compressive Flexural Impact Phenolic resin Sugar palm fibres 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sapuan, S. M., “Concurrent Engineering in Natural Fibre Composite Product Development,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 761, pp. 59–62, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahn, S.-H., “An Evaluation of Green Manufacturing Technologies based on Research Databases,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 5–9, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shalwan, A. and Yousif, B. F., “Influence of Date Palm Fibre and Graphite Filler on Mechanical and Wear Characteristics of Epoxy Composites,” Materials & Design, Vol. 59, pp. 264–273, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reddy, N. and Yang, Y., “Biocomposites using Lignocellulosic Agricultural Residues as Reinforcement,” in: Innovative Biofibers from Renewable Resources, Reddy, N., Yang, Y., (Eds.), Springer, pp. 391–417, 2015.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dornfeld, D. A., “Moving Towards Green and Sustainable Manufacturing,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 63–66, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gohil, P. P., Chaudhary, V., and Shaikh, A. A., “Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Potential, Applications, And Properties,” in: Agricultural Biomass based Potential Materials, Hakeem, K. R., Jawaid, M., Alothman, O. Y., (Eds.), Springer, pp. 51–72, 2015.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Oqla, F. M., Salit, M. S., Ishak, M. R., and Aziz, N. A., “Selecting Natural Fibers for Bio-based Materials with Conflicting Criteria,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 64–71, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishak, M. R., Sapuan, S. M., Leman, Z., Rahman, M., and Anwar, U., “Characterization of Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Fibres,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 109, No. 2, pp. 981–989, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leman, Z., Sapuan, S. M., Azwan, M., Ahmad, M. M. H. M., and Maleque, M., “The Effect of Environmental Treatments on Fiber Surface Properties and Tensile Strength of Sugar Palm Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 606–612, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sapuan, S. M., Bachtiar, D., and Hamdan, M. M., “Flexural Properties of Alkaline Treated Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 79–90, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leman, Z., Sapuan, S. M., and Suppiah, S., “Sugar Palm Fibre-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composite Interface Characterization by Pull-Out Test,” Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 471-472, pp. 1034-10392011.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ishak, M. R., Leman, Z., Salit, M. S., Rahman, M. Z. A., Uyup, M. K. A., and Akhtar, R., “IFSS, TG, FT-IR Spectra of Impregnated Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Fibres and Mechanical Properties of their Composites,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 111, No. 2, pp. 1375–1383, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sapuan, S. M., Lok, H. Y., Ishak, M. R., and Misri, S., “Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Glass/Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 1394–1403, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leman, Z., Sastra, H., Sapuan, S., Hamdan, M., and Maleque, M., “Study on Impact Properties of Arenga Pinnata Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Jurnal Teknologi Terpakai, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 14–19, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bachtiar, D., Sapuan, S. M., and Hamdan, M., “The Influence of Alkaline Surface Fibre Treatment on the Impact Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 379–383, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sahari, J., Sapuan, S., Ismarrubie, Z., and Rahman, M., “Investigation on Bending Strength and Stiffness of Sugar Palm Fibre from Different Parts Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites,” Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 471-472, pp. 502–506, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sahari, J., Sapuan, S. M., Ismarrubie, Z., and Rahman, M., “Tensile and Impact Properties of Different Morphological Parts of Sugar Palm Fibre-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites,” Polymers & Polymer Composites, Vol. 20, No. 9, pp. 861–866, 2012.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sahari, J., Sapuan, S. M., Zainudin, E. S., and Maleque, M. A., “Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Environmentally Friendly Composites Derived from Sugar Palm Tree,” Materials & Design, Vol. 49, pp. 285–289, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Idris, U. D., Aigbodion, V. S., Abubakar, I. J., and Nwoye, C. I., “Eco-Friendly Asbestos Free Brake-Pad: Using Banana Peels,” Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp 185–192, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ishak, M. R., Leman, Z., Sapuan, S. M., Salleh, M. Y., and Misri, S., “The Effect of Sea Water Treatment on the Impact and Flexural Strength of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 316–320, 2009.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ishak, M. R., Sapuan, S. M., Leman, Z., Rahman, M. Z. A., Anwar, U., and Siregar, J., “Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata): Its Fibres, Polymers and Composites,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 699–710, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jawaid, M. and Khalil, H. A., “Cellulosic/Synthetic Fibre Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites: A Review,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 86, No. 1, pp. 1–18, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nguong, C., Lee, S., and Sujan, D., “A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites,” Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 73, pp. 1123–1190, 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ishak, M., Leman, Z., Sapuan, S. M., Rahman, M., and Anwar, U., “Impregnation Modification of Sugar Palm Fibres with Phenol Formaldehyde and Unsaturated Polyester,” Fibers and Polymers, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 250–257, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aigbodion, V., Akadike, U., Hassan, S., Asuke, F., and Agunsoye, J., “Development of Asbestos-Free Brake Pad using Bagasse,” Tribology in Industry, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 12–17, 2010.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abdul-Hussein, A. B., AL-Hassani, E. S., and Mohammed, R. A., “Effect of Nature Materials Powders on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite,” Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 175–197, 2015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ruzaidi, C. M., Kamarudin, H., Shamsul, J. B., Al Bakri, A. M., and Alida, A., “Morphology and Wear Properties of Palm ASH and PCB Waste Brake Pad,” Proc. of International Conference on Asia Agriculture and Animal (ICAAA 2011), Vol. 13, pp. 145–149, 2011.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bachtiar, D., Sapuan, S. M., Khalina, A., Zainudin, E., and Dahlan, K., “Flexural and Impact Properties of Chemically Treated Sugar Palm Fiber Reinforced High Impact Polystyrene Composites,” Fibers and Polymers, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 894–898, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sahari, J., Sapuan, S. M., Zainudin, E. S., and Maleque, M. A., “Flexural and Impact Properties of Biopolymer Derived from Sugar Palm Tree,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 701, pp. 225–228, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yahaya, R., Sapuan, S. M., Jawaid, M., Leman, Z., and Zainudin, E. S., “Mechanical Performance of Woven Kenaf-Kevlar Hybrid Composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 33, No. 24, pp. 2242–2254, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ademoh, N. A. and Olabisi, A. I., “Development and Evaluation of Maize Husks (Asbestos-Free) Based Brake Pad,” Industrial Engineering Letters, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 67–80, 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bushra Rashid
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zulkiflle Leman
    • 1
  • Mohammad Jawaid
    • 3
  • Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali
    • 4
  • Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, SelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of TechnologyMiddle Technical UniversityAlzafaranya, BaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP)Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, SelangorMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical and MaterialsUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of Aerospace EngineeringUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, SelangorMalaysia

Personalised recommendations